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Table 4 Guidance plan showing the activities and timeline corresponding to each step of Mento’s Change Model

From: Mento’s change model in teaching competency-based medical education

Step No.Steps of Mento’s Model of ChangeActivity to facilitate/implement the changeTimeline
1The idea and its contextPreliminary results from the phase-1 semester-1 course of MBPG showed that flipped-model of pedagogy facilitates better learning in UME. The idea is to integrate flipped-teaching in the phase-1 semester-2 structure-function courses (table-2).N/A
2Define the change initiativePresent to the concerned stakeholders:
What is flipped-teaching?
Benefits of flipped-teaching.
Successful case-studies of flipped teaching (literature review).
FOUR-weeks prior to course initiation
3Evaluate the climate for changeAppraise the necessary resources, prior knowledge of stakeholders and technological know-how required to successfully implement flipped-teaching in the structure-function courses, through SWOT analysis.FOUR-weeks prior to course initiation
4Develop a change planWork with technology-enhanced learning (TEL) team at MBRU to develop a faculty development plan to train the stakeholders regarding strategies to implement flipped-teaching in structure-function courses.THREE-weeks prior to course initiation
5Find and cultivate a sponsorSchedule meetings with MBRU academic leadership (Dean/Associate Deans/ Departmental Chairs) to inform them about the benefits of flipped-teaching and the resources required.THREE-weeks prior to course initiation
6Prepare your target audience Organize faculty development workshops in collaboration with the TEL team to inform stakeholders about “how” to implement flipped-teaching structure-function courses.
Circulate nano-lectures on of flipped-teaching to stakeholders over WhatsApp.
TWO-weeks prior to course initiation
7Create the cultural fitCreate linkage between students’ learning approaches and flipped-teaching to elaborate to the concerned stakeholders “why” there is a necessity to create a culture of innovative pedagogy in UME.TWO-weeks prior to course initiation
8Develop and choose a leader teamCreate an informal “Leader Team” consisting of course-director and instructors from the MBPG course, such that they can guide and encourage the stakeholders to implement flipped-teaching in their courses. (at least NINE flipped-teaching sessions over FIVE weeks)ONE–FIVE weeks into the course
9Create small wins for motivationIdentify the stakeholders who successfully integrated flipped teaching in their courses and request them to present their experiences in this effort to the MBRU academic leadership and other concerned stakeholders.FOUR-FIVE weeks into the course
10Constantly and strategically communicate the changeDuring the whole transformation process:
Create a “Learning community” such that stakeholders can learn from each other about strategies to successfully implement flipped-teaching in pedagogy.
Try to address hurdles that are faced by stakeholders in their endeavor, by communicating the change process to Sponsors
ONE–FIVE weeks into the course
11Measure progress of the change effort Refer to the updated pedagogical techniques of concerned courses to appraise the number to teaching sessions where flipped-teaching was implemented.
Evaluate the attitude of stakeholders towards flipped-teaching following the transformation initiative using ADKAR framework.
Assess the performance of the students in these courses to identify if flipped-teaching was beneficial over traditional method.
Conduct student feedback to assess the perception of students towards flipped teaching.
SIXTH-week into the course following the Mid-term assessments
12Integrate lessons learnedUsing a reflective-framework conduct an After Action Review to:
Map the transformation process
Identify hurdles that further required to be tackled such that flipped-teaching can be successfully integrated in other courses.
SIXTH-week into the course following the Mid-term assessments
 PREPARATORY TIME FOR IMPLEMENTING THE TRANSFORMATIONFOUR-WEEKS
 TIME REQUIRED FOR IMPLEMENTING/ASSESSING THE TRANSFORMATIONFIVE-WEEKS
 TOTAL STUDY DURATION (PREPARATION + IMPLEMENTATION + ASSESSMENT)NINE-WEEKS