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Table 4 Nature of learning relationship across various educational roles

From: Educational roles as a continuum of mentoring’s role in medicine – a systematic review and thematic analysis of educational studies from 2000 to 2018

  Role modelling Teaching and tutoring Supervision – breadth Coaching – depth Mentoring
Level of commitment involved Relatively minimal: usually unaware and passive in practice, but effective when intentional and active Intermediate – time needed for teaching relationship to form Intermediate – ensure patient safety + resident development Intermediate – ensure mastery of skills High – psychosocial support as well as professional support
Type of commitment Voluntary/involuntary Voluntary/involuntary Voluntary/involuntary Voluntary/involuntary Voluntary
Nature of trust Professional Professional and personal
Task and interpersonal balance Either or both Task-oriented Balanced
Key to successful interaction/ relationship Display of positive attributes Safe and productive learning environment: Trusting and proactive, protected teaching time trusted by teacher Safe space for learning, balance of trainees educational development and patient safety Safe space for practicing skill to attain mastery, non-evaluative role Personal connection built on shared values, mutual respect, commitment and trust
Duration of interaction Episodic and random Variable length depending on curriculum planning, from one session to a few years Until supervisor is confident of supervisees’ skills
Time limited, current
Until coach attains mastery of goal
Time limited, current
Lifelong – evolves into friendship, gain colleague/Peer
Long-term, future oriented
Transactional nature of relationship - Performance and professional learning outcomes driven  
Psychosocial Support - Providing constructive feedback about professional competency Providing constructive feedback about professional competency
As well as personal issues
Control Passive in practice Tutor directed Supervisor directed Learner directed Mentor and mentee directed with repeated exchanges