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Table 2 Characteristics of the four educational roles

From: Educational roles as a continuum of mentoring’s role in medicine – a systematic review and thematic analysis of educational studies from 2000 to 2018

Characteristics and descriptionsReferences
Role Modelling
 Webster’s Dictionary “a person considered as a standard of excellence to be imitated.”[51,52,53]
 Combination of personal characteristics (Heart), professional patient care (Hands-on), and teaching that involves continuously making the implicit explicit (Head). Being a role model, as opposed to being a teacher or a mentor when the moment calls for it, implies that the clinical trainer integrates the “3Hs” as a unity all the time and everywhere.[54]
 everything faculty do in their being and acting as professionals both inside and outside the hospital[55,56,57,58]
 Specific observable behaviour (as well as attitudes and values) to be emulated or even surpassed by residents[58,59,60,61,62]
 Role modelling has been defined as “a way responses (specific observable behaviour as well as attitudes and values) can be learned or weakened through exposure to significant others”.[62]
 Demonstration of clinical skills, modelling and articulation of expert thought processes and manifestation of positive professional characteristics[63]
 Interactional, transactional process, which occurs simultaneously with multiple models and changes over time.[64]
Teaching and Tutoring
 Clinical skills training and knowledge transfer[65,66,67,68,69,70,71]
 Professional outcome-based assessment[66, 70, 71]
 Feedback provided for students after teaching or tutoring[65, 66]
 Standardized program structure[67, 68]
Coaching
 Individualized[72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81]
 Safe space for coached to make mistakes and learn[73, 76, 77, 82, 83]
 Deliberate teaching with focused goals[75, 82, 84,85,86]
 Individualized feedback through observation[74,75,76,77, 79, 81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91]
 Repetition[82, 87, 89, 90]
Supervision
 Apprenticeship[92]
 Clinical care under the oversight of a more senior physician[92]
 Improve resident education through identifying trainee problems, provision of feedback and supporting trainee[93,94,95,96,97,98]
 Ensure effective and safe patient care[92, 93, 99]