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Table 1 PICOS, inclusion and exclusion criteria applied to literature search

From: Educational roles as a continuum of mentoring’s role in medicine – a systematic review and thematic analysis of educational studies from 2000 to 2018

 Role modellingTeaching and tutoringCoachingSupervision
PICOSInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaInclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Population- Postgraduate or undergraduate
- Involve medical student/ junior clinician/ resident and/or senior clinician in a facility where medical services are provided, or in a facility of medical education
- Within clinical or academia or research setting
- Limited to Internal Medicine and General Medicine
- Clinical specialties not associated with Internal Medicine such as Surgery, Paediatrics, Emergency Medicine, Psychiatry, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and Clinical and Translational Science
- Allied health roles, such as Nursing, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy, Radiography, Psychology, Medical Social Work
- Wet bench research/lab work
- Veterinary work or Dentistry
- Ancillary staff such as housekeepers, administrators, finance professionals, accountancy
- Postgraduate or undergraduate
- Involve medical student/ junior clinician/ resident and/or senior clinician in a facility where medical services are provided, or in a facility of medical education
- Within clinical or academia or research setting
- Limited to Internal Medicine and General Medicine
- Clinical specialties not associated with Internal Medicine such as Surgery, Paediatrics, Emergency Medicine, Psychiatry, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and Clinical and Translational Science
- Allied health roles, such as Nursing, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy, Radiography, Psychology, Medical Social Work
- Wet bench research/lab work
- Veterinary work or Dentistry
- Ancillary staff such as housekeepers, administrators, finance professionals, accountancy
- Postgraduate or undergraduate
- Involve medical student/ junior clinician/ resident and/or senior clinician in a facility where medical services are provided, or in a facility of medical education
- Within clinical or academia or research setting
- Limited to Internal Medicine and General Medicine
- Clinical specialties not associated with Internal Medicine such as Surgery, Paediatrics, Emergency Medicine, Psychiatry, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and Clinical and Translational Science
- Allied health roles, such as Nursing, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy, Radiography, Psychology, Medical Social Work
- Wet bench research/lab work
- Veterinary work or Dentistry
- Ancillary staff such as housekeepers, administrators, finance professionals, accountancy
- Postgraduate or undergraduate
- Involve medical student/ junior clinician/ resident and/or senior clinician in a facility where medical services are provided, or in a facility of medical education
- Within clinical or academia or research setting
- Limited to Internal Medicine and General Medicine
- Clinical specialties not associated with Internal Medicine such as Surgery, Paediatrics, Emergency Medicine, Psychiatry, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and Clinical and Translational Science
- Allied health roles, such as Nursing, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy, Radiography, Psychology, Medical Social Work
- Wet bench research/lab work
- Veterinary work or Dentistry
- Ancillary staff such as housekeepers, administrators, finance professionals, accountancy
Intervention- Accounts of, or involving, role modelling between medical student, junior clinician, and/ or resident, and senior clinician
- Dyadic/ One-to-one role modelling relationship
- Role modelling process
- Characteristics of the role model and student
- Role modelling relationship
- Barriers of role modelling
- Supervision, coaching, teaching, tutoring, advising and sponsorship
- Peer mentoring, mentoring for leadership, mentoring patients or mentoring by patients, interdisciplinary mentoring
- No mention of role modelling
- Accounts of, or involving, senior and junior clinicians, residents and/or medical students who underwent tutoring and/or teaching
- Dyadic/ One-to-one teaching/ tutoring relationship
- Teaching/ tutoring process
- Characteristics of the teacher/ tutor and student
- Teaching/ tutoring relationship
- Barriers of teaching/ tutoring
- Supervision, coaching, role modelling, advising and sponsorship
- Peer mentoring, mentoring for leadership, mentoring patients or mentoring by patients, interdisciplinary mentoring
- No mention of teaching or tutoring
- Accounts of, or involving, coaching between medical student, junior clinician, and/ or resident, and senior clinician
- Dyadic/ One-to-one coaching relationship
- Coaching process
- Characteristics of coach and student
- Coaching relationship
- Barriers of coaching
- Supervision, role modelling, teaching, tutoring, advising and sponsorship
- Peer mentoring, mentoring for leadership, mentoring patients or mentoring by patients, interdisciplinary mentoring
- No mention of coaching
- Accounts of, or involving, supervision between medical student, junior clinician, and/ or resident, and senior clinician
- Dyadic/ One-to-one supervising relationship
- Supervising process
- Characteristics of supervisor and student
- Supervising relationship
- Barriers of supervision
- Supervision of procedure
- Role modelling, coaching, teaching, tutoring, advising and sponsorship
- Peer mentoring, mentoring for leadership, mentoring patients or mentoring by patients, interdisciplinary mentoring
- No mention of supervision
ComparisonComparisons of accounts on dyadic role modelling, including its approach to implement dyadic role modelling, processes, characteristics, challenges, evaluation methods and criteria Comparisons of accounts on dyadic tutoring and teaching, including its approach to implement dyadic teaching/tutoring, processes, characteristics, challenges, evaluation methods and criteria Comparisons of accounts on dyadic coaching, including its approach to implement dyadic coaching, processes, characteristics, challenges, evaluation methods and criteria Comparisons of accounts on dyadic supervision, including its approach to implement dyadic supervision, processes, characteristics, challenges, evaluation methods and criteria 
Outcome- Personal outcomes
- Professional outcomes
- Career-related outcomes
- Research and academia outcomes
- Impact on role model and student
Studies where role modelling outcome was not the main component studied- Personal outcomes
- Professional outcomes
- Career-related outcomes
- Research and academia outcomes
- Impact on teacher/ tutor and student
Studies where teaching/ tutoring outcome was not the main component studied- Personal outcomes
- Professional outcomes
- Career-related outcomes
- Research and academia outcomes
- Impact on coach and student
Studies where coaching outcome was not the main component studied- Personal outcomes
- Professional outcomes
- Career-related outcomes
- Research and academia outcomes
- Impact on supervisor and student
Studies where supervising outcome was not the main component studied
Study designAll study designs are included:
- Descriptive papers
- Qualitative, quantitative and mixed study methods
- Published between 1 Jan 2000 and 31 Dec 2018
- Written in English Language or translated into English Language
- Grey literature
- Perspectives, opinion, commentary pieces and editorials
All study designs are included:
- Descriptive papers
- Qualitative, quantitative and mixed study methods
- Published between 1 Jan 2000 and 31 Dec 2018
- Written in English Language or translated into English Language
- Grey literature
- Perspectives, opinion, commentary pieces and editorials
All study designs are included:
- Descriptive papers
- Qualitative, quantitative and mixed study methods
- Published between 1 Jan 2000 and 31 Dec 2018
- Written in English Language or translated into English Language
- Grey literature
- Perspectives, opinion, commentary pieces and editorials
All study designs are included:
- Descriptive papers
- Qualitative, quantitative and mixed study methods
- Published between 1 Jan 2000 and 31 Dec 2018
- Written in English Language or translated into English Language
- Grey literature
- Perspectives, opinion, commentary pieces and editorials