|Authors (year)||Country||Number of participants||Study method||Coping strategies identified|
|Firth-Cozen et al. ||UK||264||Questionnaire||- Rationalized/ accepted (23.6%)|
- Carried on with patient care (22.5%)
- Talked to others (21.7%)
- Dismissed the episode (13.3%)
|Ratanawongsa et al. ||USA||32||Interview||Verbal: discussing the experiences with family, non-medical and medical friends.|
Non-verbal: exercise, writing, music therapy, and prayer.
|Rhodes-Kropf et al. ||Canada||38||Quantitative questionnaire and interview||Verbal: Talked to others (76%), talked to other students (44%) and talked to their [own] significant others (27%)|
Non-verbal: movies and reading (12%), focused on work and study (12%) and prayed (12%).
|Kelly et al. ||Canada||29||Interview, focus group, or written questionnaire in a narrative format||- Contemplated their life value|
- Turned the event into a learning experience. For example, learned how the pulmonary embolus was diagnosed.
|Jones et al. ||UK||131||Qualitative questionnaire||On UK clinical attachments|
- Talked to family and friends (50%)
- Talked to doctors (26%)
- Talked to nurses (8%)
- Talked to family and friends > local people they were working with
|Pessagno et al. ||USA||20||Interview||- Talked to others: family and friends and senior medical team members such as residents|
- Carried on with work
- Accepted and dealt with negative emotions
- Participated in rituals after death
- Turned to religion
|Smith-Han et al. ||New Zealand||53||Interview||- Discussed cases with colleagues and friends|
- Turned to something else such as exercise, a hobby or a drink