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Table 1 Thematic map on essential steps of PBL

From: Facilitating learning of community-based rehabilitation through problem-based learning in higher education

Knowing the problem scenarioPresentation of a problem [29]
Start with a cognitive question [30]
Knowing the problem [28, 31]
Define the problem [29]
Identify the problem [32]
Identifying factsCollection of information [28, 31]
Monitor and analyze practice [33]
Clarify unclear terms and concepts [29]
Clarify concepts [32]
Identifying knowledge gapsEstablishment of learning objectives [28, 31]
Generate hypothesis [34]
Identify objectives [34]
Engage in learning [34]
Reexamine and reassess what we have already known [30]
Formulate learning goals [29, 32]
Problem analysis and statement formation [32]
Develop resourcesBrainstorm [32]
Prioritize and research through the objectives [34]
Assimilate knowledge (new and old) [30]
Read, study, analyze to gain knowledge [30]
further observation and experiment [30]
Problem analysis: produce as many ideas a possible [29]
problem analysis: arrange the ideas systematically and analyze them [29]
Summarizing [28, 31]
Analyze the problem [32]
independent self-directed study [32]
discussion [32]
Gain insights to apply knowledgeInform and apply acquired information to the problem [34]
apply new learning or improvement [33]
making inference [30]
synthesize and apply the new information [29]
Reflecting on knowledge gainReflection [28, 31]
Monitor effects of leaning [33]
reflective thought [30]