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Table 2 The questionnaire was answered by all the students after the examination. The anonymous paper questionnaire survey was adopted to compare the subjective learning feelings of the two groups of students. The content includes skills development, appropriate assessment, and academic environment. 1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neutral, 4 = strongly disagree, 5 = disagree. Effect size is calculated by test statistic divided by the root of sample size (small effect: 0.1 < r ≤ 0.3, medium effect: 0.3 < r ≤ 0.5, large effect: r > 0.5)

From: Effectiveness of flipped classroom combined with team-, case-, lecture- and evidence-based learning on ophthalmology teaching for eight-year program students

 Flipped classroomControlMann-Whitney UP valueEffect size
1. Skills Development
 The class has helped me develop my ability to work as a team member.1.6875 ± 0.895778633.514285714± 0.939435832102.0000.0000.723519
 The class has sharpened my analytical skills.2.03 ± 0.973.11±0.97249.5000.0000.493219
 As a result of my degree course, I feel confident about tackling unfamiliar problems.2.531 ± 1.273.143± 0.961393.5000.0310.263531
 The class has developed my problem-solving skills2.4063 ± 0.94563.1429± 0.971331.5000.0020.378375
 The class has improved my skills in written communication2.65625 ± 1.095721153.342857143±0.903256894339.5000.0030.366768
 My class has helped me to develop the ability to plan my own work2.53125 ±1.1635422833.085714286±1.158817131389.5000.0250.273183
2. Appropriate Assessment
 There is a lot of pressure on me as a student in this class2.9687± 1.0920349463.257142857±1.125110224483.5000.3140.12303
 The workload is too heavy2.9375±1.0140146973.085714286±1.267418323502.5000.4230.097862
 I am generally given enough time to understand the things I have to learn2.4375±1.0757592973.085714286±1.401529776359.0000.0080.32413
 The sheer volume of work to be got through in this class means it can’t all be thoroughly comprehended Clear Goals and Standards2.75±1.1639752.8±1.656157539.5000.7880.032865
 I have usually had a clear idea of where I am going and what is expected of me in this class2.0625±1.0757592972.628571429±1.884565547418.0000.0650.225412
 It is always easy to know the standard of work expected2.13±1.242.94±1.92345.0000.0060.339157
 The staff made it clear right from the start what they expected from students2.3438±0.97083.1429±2.0616345.000.0050.340501
 It has often been hard to discover what is expected of me in this class4.125±0.9073.3429±2.1667357.5000.0080.322663
3. Academic Environment
 The class is intellectually stimulating.2.0625±1.0757592972.742857143±2.418677324392.0000.0300.265852
 The class administration is effective in supporting my learning2±1.1359243.114286±2.443488268.0000.0000.46292
 My class has stimulated my enthusiasm for further learning2.1875±1.1482813±2.621644340.0000.0040.348076
 Where it was used, information technology helped me to learn2.28125±1.325542.942857±2.695528368.5000.0130.303115
 I feel part of a group of students and staff committed to learning2.46875±1.2439372.971429±2.882211408.500.0480.241662
 I feel I benefit from being in contact with active researchers2.25±1.047273±3.075118359.5000.0090.31741