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Table 5 The Modified Approaches to Learning Medicine (mALM) questionnaire

From: To examine the associations between medical students’ conceptions of learning, strategies to learning, and learning outcome in a medical humanities course

  No. Items
Deep Strategy DS 1 RI 1 1 When learning medicine, I try to relate what I have learned in one subject to what I have learned in others.
DS 2 RI 2 2 When learning medicine, I like to create a new plausible theory for helping me to summarize a lot of disorganized content.
DS 3 RI 3 3 When learning medicine, I try to find out the relationships between what I have learned.
DS 4 RI 4 4 When learning new subjects in medicine, I try to relate to those I have learned.
DS 5 U 1 5 When reading medical textbooks, I try to understand the meaning of the content.
DS 6 U 2 6 When learning medicine, I try to understand the content of the medical courses.
DS 7 U 3 7 When learning medicine, I use systemic ways to learn.
DS 8 U 4 8 When learning medicine, I read original textbooks or use online resources for better understanding of the content.
SS 1 MSS 1 9 When learning medicine, the items not tested in the exams are meaningless to me.
SS 2 MSS 2 10 When learning medicine, I spend as little time on studying medicine as I can, as long as I feel that I can pass the exams. There are many other interesting things to do.
SS 3 MSS 3 11 When learning medicine, I find out the contents which are worth spending time to study simply because I do not want to spend time and energy on the unrelated content.
Surface Strategy SS 4 MSS 4 12 When learning medicine, we do not need to be familiar with all the contents simply because there are so many exams we need to pass, and so many subjects we need to learn.
SS 5 MSS 5 13 When learning medicine, I hope that the teacher can give us what will be tested in the exams, for us to better prepare for the exams.
SS 6 M 1 14 When learning medicine, I practice rote memorization of the content until I firmly memorize all of the content.
SS 7 MSS 6 15 I feel that the best way to get good grades in medical exams is the rote the answers of similar questions.
SS 8 MSS 7 16 I find that to memorize the content of medical subjects by rote makes me achieve good grades on exams, rather than to understand them.
SS 9 M 2 17 When learning medicine, I am very focused on those which will be tested in exams, and I memorize them by rote.
SS 10 M 3 18 When learning medicine, I use lecture notes and aids for National Licensing Exams as important learning guides.
SS 11 M 4 19 When learning medicine, I try to improve my memorization by repeated rote.
  1. Abbreviation List: DS Deep Strategy, SS Surface Strategy, RI Relating Ideas, U Understanding, MSS Minimizing Scope of Study, M Memorization