From: Medical graduate views on statistical learning needs for clinical practice: a comprehensive survey

Topic | n | rank | Required competency | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Includes practice | Practice only | Theory and practice | Theory only | Neither | Don’t know | |||

a. Data visualization, Data preparation and manipulation and Software used for statistics | ||||||||

Data visualization | ||||||||

Graphical presentation of data: | 274 | 1 | 84.3 | 32.8 | 51.6 | 14.2 | 1.1 | 0.4 |

Cross tabulating frequencies or percentages: | 273 | 23 | 37.4 | 15.0 | 22.3 | 28.9 | 16.1 | 17.6 |

Survival analysis: | 277 | 39 | 20.9 | 5.4 | 15.5 | 65.0 | 7.2 | 6.9 |

Forest plots: | 274 | 45 | 15.0 | 3.6 | 11.3 | 51.8 | 17.5 | 15.7 |

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves: | 275 | 46 | 13.6 | 2.6 | 11.0 | 45.4 | 18.3 | 22.7 |

Cluster analysis: | 277 | 51 | 6.1 | 1.1 | 5.1 | 52.7 | 26.7 | 14.4 |

Time series analysis: | 272 | 52 | 5.9 | 2.2 | 3.7 | 36.4 | 27.6 | 30.1 |

Data preparation and manipulation | ||||||||

Arranging data in spreadsheets for statistical analysis: | 278 | 2 | 81.7 | 25.5 | 56.1 | 14.4 | 2.2 | 1.8 |

Working with subsets of the original data - filtering data: | 274 | 27 | 33.2 | 13.9 | 19.3 | 38.0 | 15.3 | 13.5 |

Merging similar datasets: | 273 | 42 | 17.9 | 6.2 | 11.7 | 38.8 | 27.5 | 15.8 |

Types of response data: | 272 | 49 | 9.6 | 2.9 | 6.6 | 41.5 | 17.3 | 31.6 |

Software used for statistics | ||||||||

Using Excel for statistics-tips and warnings | 270 | 7 | 64.1 | 26.3 | 37.8 | 23.0 | 9.3 | 3.7 |

Getting to know the fundamentals of a statistical package such as SPSS: | 274 | 11 | 57.3 | 27.0 | 30.4 | 22.6 | 14.6 | 5.5 |

b. Ratios, rates and proportions, Summarising data and Probability theory | ||||||||

Ratios, rates and proportions | ||||||||

Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values: | 272 | 4 | 75.0 | 26.1 | 48.9 | 24.3 | 0 | 0.7 |

Comparing a study cohort with a general population: | 274 | 22 | 38.3 | 13.5 | 24.8 | 56.6 | 4.4 | 0.7 |

Statistical risk estimates: | 272 | 38 | 23.0 | 5.2 | 17.8 | 62.6 | 6.3 | 8.1 |

Summarising data | ||||||||

Simple descriptive (or summary) statistics: | 272 | 5 | 69.9 | 24.6 | 45.2 | 21.7 | 5.5 | 2.9 |

Confidence intervals: | 278 | 6 | 65.1 | 20.9 | 44.2 | 34.5 | 0.4 | 0.0 |

Summarising and analysing missing data: | 267 | 43 | 17.6 | 4.9 | 12.7 | 50.2 | 20.6 | 11.6 |

Probability theory | ||||||||

Laws of probability: | 278 | 12 | 48.9 | 12.2 | 36.7 | 46.4 | 3.2 | 1.4 |

Concepts and rules of probability: | 276 | 25 | 34.5 | 10.2 | 24.4 | 61.1 | 2.9 | 1.5 |

c. Reporting statistics and Avoiding bad practice in statistics and exploring study design | ||||||||

Reporting statistics | ||||||||

Presenting the findings and conclusions of statistical hypothesis tests: | 276 | 8 | 63.4 | 20.7 | 42.0 | 28.6 | 5.4 | 3.3 |

Statistical significance, statistical power and some facts about p-values: | 275 | 10 | 58.5 | 18.9 | 39.6 | 39.6 | 0.7 | 1.1 |

Valid reporting and interpretation of statistical findings: | 274 | 14 | 46.0 | 12.4 | 33.5 | 48.4 | 3.6 | 2.2 |

Statistical effect sizes: | 274 | 15 | 44.9 | 11.3 | 33.6 | 51.5 | 2.2 | 1.5 |

Avoiding bad practice in statistics and exploring study design | ||||||||

Principles of good study design: | 275 | 16 | 42.6 | 14.2 | 28.4 | 5.3 | 1.8 | 0.4 |

Sample size calculations: | 272 | 18 | 41.2 | 14.0 | 27.2 | 47.1 | 8.5 | 3.3 |

Randomization: | 275 | 20 | 39.6 | 13.1 | 26.5 | 59.3 | 0.7 | 0.4 |

Misuse of statistics: some statistical blunders and phenomena to look out for in published literature: | 274 | 21 | 39.4 | 10.6 | 28.8 | 52.9 | 5.1 | 2.6 |

Different types of study design: | 275 | 26 | 34.2 | 9.1 | 25.1 | 64.7 | 0.4 | 0.7 |

Statistical aspects of clinical trials: | 272 | 32 | 29.4 | 6.3 | 23.2 | 65.8 | 2.9 | 1.8 |

Retrospective power calculations versus examination of confidence intervals: | 275 | 47 | 12.7 | 2.5 | 10.2 | 48.7 | 21.5 | 17.1 |

Cross-over trials: | 271 | 48 | 11.8 | 2.6 | 9.2 | 70.5 | 10.3 | 7.4 |

d. Procedures explicitly requiring statistical hypothesis testing and Assessing agreement, consistency and correlation | ||||||||

Procedures explicitly requiring statistical hypothesis testing | ||||||||

Tests of normality: | 274 | 17 | 41.7 | 11.3 | 29.9 | 43.8 | 8.0 | 6.9 |

Simple linear regression analysis: | 278 | 19 | 39.6 | 14.4 | 25.2 | 43.9 | 11.2 | 5.4 |

Hypothesis tests for a single group of continuous data: | 269 | 24 | 35.3 | 10.4 | 24.9 | 35.4 | 13.0 | 16.4 |

One-tailed versus two-tailed hypotheses tests: | 271 | 28 | 32.8 | 9.6 | 23.2 | 48.7 | 9.2 | 9.2 |

Hypothesis tests for categorical data: | 271 | 30 | 32.1 | 8.5 | 23.6 | 35.8 | 14.0 | 18.1 |

Hypothesis tests for comparing two groups of measurement or ordinal data: | 270 | 33 | 29.3 | 5.9 | 23.0 | 31.5 | 17.4 | 21.9 |

Analysis of variance (ANOVA): | 270 | 36 | 27.0 | 8.5 | 18.5 | 45.6 | 15.2 | 12.2 |

Multiple linear regression analysis: | 278 | 41 | 18.3 | 6.8 | 11.5 | 58.3 | 16.2 | 7.2 |

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA): | 269 | 44 | 16.7 | 5.9 | 10.8 | 42.4 | 23.0 | 17.8 |

Tests of homoscedasticity (or, ‘equality’ of variance): | 269 | 50 | 6.7 | 1.5 | 5.2 | 30.5 | 30.1 | 32.7 |

Assessing agreement, consistency and correlation | ||||||||

Correlation coefficients –linear and non-linear: | 271 | 34 | 29.2 | 8.1 | 21.0 | 53.1 | 10.0 | 7.7 |

Statistical indices for measuring levels of agreement and consistency: | 274 | 37 | 27.0 | 7.3 | 19.7 | 55.1 | 9.9 | 8.0 |

Assessing agreement between two methods of measurement: | 268 | 40 | 18.7 | 5.6 | 13.1 | 48.9 | 16.4 | 16.0 |

e. Allied topics and Critical appraisals and systematic reviews | ||||||||

Allied topics | ||||||||

Understanding the proper meaning of an audit: | 275 | 3 | 81.5 | 29.1 | 52.4 | 16.4 | 1.1 | 1.1 |

Designing survey questions to support valid statistical analyses: | 271 | 13 | 48.0 | 15.9 | 32.1 | 36.2 | 10.0 | 5.9 |

Health-related data sources: | 272 | 29 | 32.7 | 9.9 | 22.8 | 45.2 | 7.7 | 14.3 |

Representing socioeconomic status: | 278 | 35 | 29.1 | 6.5 | 22.7 | 58.6 | 6.1 | 6.1 |

Critical appraisals and systematic reviews | ||||||||

Conducting critical appraisals: | 271 | 9 | 62.0 | 21.0 | 40.2 | 30.3 | 4.1 | 4.4 |

Systematic reviews: | 267 | 31 | 31.5 | 8.2 | 23.2 | 65.5 | 2.2 | 0.7 |