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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of physicians in 1996 and 2006 who continue to work as PSs in 2006 and 2016

From: Distribution and retention trends of physician-scientists in Japan: a longitudinal study

  OR 95% CI P-value
1996–2006 cohort
 Sex
  Male   Reference  
  Female 0.91 0.72–1.14 0.41
 Years of experience
  0–14   Reference  
  15–29** 3.48 3.00–4.02 < 0.01
  30–44** 0.52 0.41–0.66 < 0.01
  45 0.49 0.20–1.22 0.13
 Qualified as a physician over 30 years old
  No   Reference  
  Yes 0.76 0.53–0.68 < 0.01
 Workplace
  Urban   Reference  
  Intermediate 1.09 0.95–1.25 0.20
  Rural 0.88 0.30–2.60 0.82
2006–2016 cohort
 Sex
  Male   Reference  
  Female 0.99 0.82–1.20 0.91
 Years of experience
  0–14   Reference  
  15–29** 5.00 4.32–5.79 < 0.01
  30–44 0.95 0.77–1.16 0.60
  45* 0.38 0.17–0.86 0.02
 Qualified as a physician over 30 years old
  No   Reference  
  Yes 1.00 0.86–1.18 0.95
 Workplace
  Urban   Reference  
  Intermediate 1.09 0.96–1.25 0.19
  Rural 1.46 0.60–3.55 0.40
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01