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Table 3 Characteristics of the included ‘white’ literature

From: Development of a national medical leadership competency framework: the Dutch approach

1st author, publication year (nationality) (categorya)Article type / MethodObjectiveFocusRelevant findings
1. Fleuren, 2004 [48*] (Dutch) (1)Literature study and Delphi consultationValidate determinants of innovations with Dutch implementation expertsInnovations in large healthcare systemsImpact of opinion-leadership on innovation
2. Bloemen, 2005 [49*] (Dutch) (4)Model development and evaluation; mixed methodsStudy enabling factors and barriers for implementation transmural care in a Dutch regionTransmural care model implementationIndividual professional’s (eagerness for) learning knowledge, skills and competencies for transmural care
3. Scholten, 2005 [50*] (Dutch) (3)Mixed methods: document analysis and semi-open interviewsStudy of executives’ and medical staff’s role in medical governance in Dutch hospitalsPolicy implementation and effects of collective counteractivities of physiciansChallenges of and role of physicians in ‘medical governance’ in hospitals
4. Prince, 2005 [51*] (Dutch) (2)18 months post-graduate evaluation of problem-based learning (PBL) re. general competenciesCompare PBL versus non-PBL among Dutch junior doctorsGeneral educational competenciesPBL possibly preferable for some competencies
5. Van Raak, 2008 [52*] (Dutch) (4)Case study; mixed methodsStudy routines and cooperation in Dutch regional integrated careDisparate matches between professional routines(Transformational) leadership can facilitate routine divergence
6. Duckers, 2009 [53*] (Dutch) (1)Multilevel analysis (physician data)Study effect of leadership on participation in improvement programsLeadership climate influencing (physician) engagement in innovation Dutch hospitalsImportance of leadership visibility and minimizing ambiguity on leadership intentions
7. Klopper, 2009 [54*] (Dutch) (3)Mixed methodsStudy of relative status, power, and goal incompatibilityImage Theory in Dutch physician-manager relationshipNeed for physicians to understand management perspective
8. Berkenbosch, 2011 [55*] (Dutch) (2)QuestionnaireStudy of residents’ perceptions and understanding of management skills and knowledgeManagement competency training for Dutch physiciansManagement competency training for junior physicians needs improvement
9. Cramm, 2011 [56*] (Dutch) (4)Validity and reliability (psychometric) testingValidate Partnership Self-Assessment Tool (PSAT) in Dutch chronic careProfessional partnership synergy in disease managementLeadership competencies influence partnership functioning
10. Klopper, 2011 [57*] (Dutch) (3)Semi-structured interviewsStudy on influence of Dutch manager-physician and managers cooperation on hospital performanceIntergroup conflict theory and manager-physician cooperationMedical-management culture influence, intra-hospital cooperation and performance
11.Schreuder, 2011 [58*] (Dutch) (5)Cross-sectional studyInvestigation of leadership-sickness absence relationshipLeadership styles and sickness absence in Dutch healthcareRelationship-oriented leadership styles can facilitate efficiency and quality
12. Teunissen, 2011 [59*] (Dutch) (2)Medical education related commentaryEditorial comment on publicationsTransition from ‘learning’ to ‘performing’Metacognitive skills can facilitate entry into medical practice
13. Van der Lee, 2011 [60*] (Dutch) (2)Inductive analysis of semi-structured open-ended questionnaireTo test content validity of CanMEDS frameworkDutch physicians’ vision of future generic medical competenciesCurriculum design could benefit from (strategically planned) external influences
14. Berben, 2012 [61*] (Dutch) (4)Qualitative: focus groups and interviewsIdentification of determinants in pain management in Dutch emergency careChanging protocols in care chains(Physician) role modelling can facilitate professional communication and attitude
15. Buljac, 2012 [62*] (Dutch) (1)Cross-sectional survey in Dutch long-term careImpact of team member stability, team coaching, and error orientation on team safety and innovationTeam safety and innovation in long-term care teams(Team) coaching leadership styles is related to stability and safety of care
16. Ovretveit, 2012 [63*] (Swedish/Dutch) (1)Mixed-methods comparisonEvaluation of large-scale Dutch health and social care improvement programsSuccess of national improvement initiativesClinical championing affects implementation success of improvement programs
17. Smith, 2012 [64*] (international) (3)Structured surveyGovernance arrangements in leadership and healthcare in developed countriesLeadership, governance and accountability in health systemsAwareness raising of national healthcare priority setting and performance indicators and monitoring
18. Van Daele, 2012 [47*] (Flemish) (3)Symposium abstractConflicting priorities within responsibilities of clinical leaders, vis-a-vis management, staff and patientsRole of clinical department leadersConflicting priorities in clinical leadership and management roles can create vulnerability
19. Aij, 2013 [65*] (Dutch) (1)Semi-structured, in-depth interviews in Dutch hospitalsDeterminants of lean implementation from a leadership perspectiveLean improvement implementationLeadership (competencies like) role modelling, visibility and vision across multidisciplinary shared learning facilitates lean implementation
20. Berkenbosch, 2013 [66*] (Dutch) (2)Online survey to Dutch medical specialistsNeed for management training among Dutch residentsManager competency training to residentsManagement competency education should entail leadership skills
21. Cramm, 2013a [67*] (Dutch) (1)Cross-sectional survey in Dutch long-term careInvestigation of partnership synergy during innovationsSustainability of innovations in community care settingsLeadership competencies, in relation to ‘boundary spanning’, benefit sustainability of innovations
22. Cramm, 2013b [68*] (Dutch) (5)Cross-sectional survey in Dutch long-term careOrganizational characteristics related to employee solidarityEffect of employee solidarity on effectiveness and efficiencyTransformational leadership styles enhance employee solidarity
23. Elshout, 2013 [69*] (Dutch) (5)Mixed methods design: interviews and document studyInvestigation of association between leadership style, absenteeism, and employee satisfaction in mental health care institutionsLeadership style, employee satisfaction and absenteeismTransformational leadership benefits employee satisfaction and absenteeism
24. Huis, 2013 [70*] (Dutch) (1)Process evaluation of a randomized controlled trialAssociation between hand hygiene improvement strategies and complianceQuality improvement strategiesEffects of team leadership and role modelling on hygiene compliance
25. Ijkema, 2013 [71*] (Dutch) (1)Semi-structured interviews in Dutch hospitalsIdentification of determinants for successful implementation improvement initiativeImplementation of complex multi-component improvement programsImportance of effective leadership in project management
26. Witman, 2013 [72*] (Dutch) (2)Descriptive case studyReport of a pilot studyProfessional identity and education in reflective practiceReflection on practices: Balancing between conflicting responsibilities
  1. aCategory: (1) improvement and innovation; (2) training and education; (3) administration and policy issues; (4) integrated care and multidisciplinary disease management; and (5) human resources