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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: These may not be the courses you are seeking: a systematic review of open online courses in health professions education

Study ID Design Health profession(s) N Course country Course duration Level of evidence
Bellack 2013 [14] Narrative / opinion Nursing Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Billings 2014 [15] Narrative / opinion Nursing Unreported USA Unreported V
Coughlan 2015 [16] Narrative / opinion Any (mainly physiotherapy and psychiatry) Unreported UK Unreported V
Davies 2013 [17] Narrative / opinion Medicine Unreported Unreported Unreported V
DeSilets 2013 [18] Narrative / opinion Any (mainly medicine and nursing) Unreported Various Unreported V
Evans 2017 [19] Descriptive / case series Various 7082 Various 6 wks IV
Frank 2016 [20] Cohort / case control Medicine 202 USA Unclear III-3
Fricton 2015 [21] Descriptive / case series Any (incl. Non health-professionals) 23,650 USA 18 wks IV
Geissler 2015 [22] Narrative / opinion Nutrition and dietetics Unreported UK Unreported V
Goldberg 2017 [23] Narrative / opinion Any health professions Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Gooding 2013 [24] Descriptive / case series Public health Unreported USA Unreported IV
Harder 2013 [4] Narrative / opinion Medicine Unreported USA Unreported V
Harvey 2014 [25] Descriptive / case series Physiotherapy 3523 UK 5 wks IV
Harvey 2017 [26] Descriptive / case series Physiotherapy 13,509 Various 5 wks IV
Heller 2014 [27] Narrative / opinion Any health professions Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Henningsohn 2017 [28] Narrative / opinion Medicine 4925 Various   V
Hoedebecke 2018 [29] Descriptive / case series Medicine 40 Unclear Unreported IV
Hossain 2015 [30] RCT Physiotherapy 48 UK 5 wks II
Hoy 2014 [31] Narrative / opinion Medicine Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Inácio 2015 [32] Review Pharmacy Unreported Finland / Portugal Unreported I
Jacquet 2018 [33] Descriptive / case series Unclear 5935 USA Unreported IV
Jia 2019 [34] Cohort / case control Nursing 4016 China 16 wks III-3
Juanes 2015 [35] Narrative / opinion Any health professions Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Kearney 2016 [36] Narrative / opinion Dentistry Unreported Unreported Unreported V
King 2014 [37] Narrative / opinion Any health professions 10,000 Australia 11 wks V
King 2015 [38] Descriptive / case series Any (incl. Carers for people with dementia) Unreported Australia Unclear IV
Kononowicz 2015 [39] Descriptive / case series Behavioural Medicine 19,236 Sweden 5 wks IV
Lan 2019 [40] Descriptive / case series Dentistry 7608 China 5 wks IV
Liyanagunawardena 2014 [3] Review Any health professions Unreported Unreported Unreported I
Liyanagunawardena 2018 [41] Narrative / opinion Unreported Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Lunde 2018 [42] Descriptive / case series Medicine and Nursing Unreported Unreported Unreported IV
Magana 2018a [43] Descriptive / case series Various 35,968 Mexico Unreported IV
Magana 2018b [44] Descriptive / case series Various 19,563 Mexico 40 h IV
Masters 2011 [45] Narrative / opinion Medicine Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Maxwell 2018 [46] Narrative / opinion Various Unreported Various Unreported V
McCartney 2015 [47] Narrative / opinion Nursing Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Medina 2017 [48] Descriptive / case series Medicine and Nursing 1169 Various 6 wks IV
Milligan 2014 [49] Descriptive / case series Any health professions 22,000 USA 4 mths IV
Perez-Moreno 2018 [50] Descriptive / case series Medicine and Pharmacy 2148 Spain 4 mths IV
Power 2015 [51] Narrative / opinion Nursing and Midwifery Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Roberts 2014 [52] Narrative / opinion Medicine Unreported USA Unclear V
Robinson 2016 [53] Descriptive / case series Medicine 40 USA 5 wks IV
Rowe 2016 [54] Qualitative Physiotherapy 8 South Africa 6 wks IV
Sitzman 2016 [55] Descriptive / case series Nursing 714 USA 4 wks IV
Skiba 2013 [56] Narrative / opinion Nursing Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Sneddon 2018 [57] Descriptive / case series Various 32,944 Various 6 wks IV
Stokes 2015 [58] Descriptive / case series Dentistry (potential enrolees) 4224 UK 6 wks IV
Subhi 2014 [59] Review Medicine Unreported Unreported Unreported I
Swinnerton 2017 [60] Descriptive / case series Medicine 18,382 UK 3 wks IV
Szpunar 2013 [61] Narrative / opinion Psychology (plus economics and classics) Unclear Unclear 1X1-hr lecture V
Takooshian 2016 [62] Narrative / opinion Psychology Unreported Unreported Unreported V
Unknown 2015 [63] Narrative / opinion Unclear Unclear USA Unclear V
Wan 2016 [64] Descriptive / case series Pharmacy 407 Taiwan 4 wks IV
Zhao 2018 [65] Review Medicine 12,197 Various Unclear V
  1. Unreported not applicable, RCT randomised controlled trial, UK United Kingdom, USA United States of America, NHMRC levels of evidence: II a randomised controlled trial, III-2 a comparative study, IV case series or cross-sectional study, V expert opinion or other