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Table 1 Tools used to assess medical students’ mental health and determinants

From: A systematic review of depression and anxiety in medical students in China

Assessment tools Assessment tool (abbreviated) Standard Studies (n) Ref. No
Depression
 Beck Depression Inventory BDI A score of ≥14 out of 84 indicates depression 3 [39]
 Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale CES-D A score of ≥15 out of 60 indicates depression 4 [40]
 Zung self-rating Depression Scale SDS A score of ≥40 out of 80 indicates depression 8 [41]
Anxiety
 Symptom Checklist 90 SCL-90 A score of ≥1.8 out of 5 indicates anxiety 2 [42]
 Beck Anxiety Inventory BAI A score of ≥5 out of 63 indicates anxiety 1 [43]
 Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale SAS A score of ≥40 out of 80 indicates anxiety 6 [44]
 Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale HAMA A score of ≥14 out of 56 indicates anxiety 3 [45]
Determinants
 Perceived Social Support Scale PSSS 2 [46]
 Eysenck Personality Questionnaire EPQ 2 [47]
 Life Events Scale LES 1 [48]
 China College Student Adjustment Scale CCSAS 1 [49]
 Life Orientation Test-Revised LOT-R 1 [50]
 Resilience Scale-14 RS-14 1 [51]
 Adult Dispositional Hope Scale ADHS 1 [52]
 Social Support Rating Scale SSRS 2 [53]
 Family APGAR Index APGAR 1 [54]
 Student-life Stress Inventory SLS 1 [55]
 Coping Style Questionnaire CSQ 1 [56]
 The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-form Health Survey SF-36 1 [57]
 Beck Hopeless Scale BHS 1 [58]
 Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List ASLEC 1 [59]
 The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI 1 [60]