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Table 4 Practical steps for promoting learner autonomy

From: Learning to drive: resident physicians’ perceptions of how attending physicians promote and undermine autonomy

What to do What to avoid
 • Clear communication regarding roles and responsibility
 • Encourage patient ownership
 • Actively promote RP decision making
 • Collaborate with RPs in decision making
 • Be sensitive to team dynamics and hierarchy
 • Allow case presentation without interruption
 • Challenge RP to think independently
 • Remain open to RP input
 • Provide evidence for alternative approaches
 • Graduated independence
 • Allow RP space to work
 • Provide opportunities for independent activity
• Having a predetermined course of action
• Interrupting case presentations
• Not asking RP for care plan and thought process
• Changing care plans without RP involvement or knowledge
• Constant presence in RP work area
• Imposing personal management style