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Table 2 Kirkpatrick level 1 learning outcomes from studies included in the scoping review

From: The role of WhatsApp® in medical education; a scoping review and instructional design model

Positive
Convenient and efficient method of learning and solving difficult clinical problems [10, 19, 23, 29, 32]
Enables learning by numerous means;
 - By revision [17, 31]
 - By Q&A problem solving strategy [17]
 - By preplanned curriculum [23, 30] or by adapting to an evolving curriculum [31]
 - By using multimedia tools to explain complex concepts [31]
 - By teacher-learner and learner-learner model [23]
 - By learning in a legitimate, collaborative, social, online group space [23, 25, 31]
 - By deconstructing hierarchy, reducing inhibitions and encouraging active involvement by all grades of learner [21, 26, 31]
 - By obtaining links to relevant learning material [10, 23, 26]
Enables assessment;
 - Formative assessment within discussions [21, 24, 30]
 - Summative assessment tool, especially as a method for measuring learner engagement/participation in discussions [17, 31]
Negative
 Intrusiveness and interference with routine clinical work [24, 31]
 Large volume of learning material can impede learning [23, 25]
 Concerns about breaching patient confidentiality [24, 26]
 Effective learning depends on “completion” of a discussion topic which does not always happen [26]