Skip to main content

Table 1 Components of theoretically-based EBP interventions for undergraduate students

From: Theory-based strategies for teaching evidence-based practice to undergraduate health students: a systematic review

  Steps of EBP process
Citation detail Discipline/ year level Brief description of intervention Duration of intervention Question (PICO) Searching Critical Appraisal Implementation Evaluation of EBP (not intervention)
Ashktorab et al. 2014 [45] Nursing; Final semester of degree course Each step of intervention based on Rogers’ diffusion of Innovation Model; small groups; Q & A interactive discussions; encouraged to continue discussion on clinical questions outside of teaching hours; Posters presented at health centers as a way of sharing evidence at end of program. Unclear; ten educational sessions delivered over course of unit but unit length not specified. Yes – based on health priorities Yes Yes Adoption of EBP behaviors Not specified; evidence dissemination addressed in poster presentation
Kim et al. 2009 [46] Nursing; Fourth year (senior year) ‘E-FIT’ intervention comprising 3 phases – 1) problem identification and evidence synthesis; 2) implementation strategy; 3) dissemination.
2-h introductory lecture on principles, definition, steps of and resources needed for EBP, Projects conducted in small groups; ended course with ‘Sharing Day’. Also included education on evidence dissemination strategies, protocol for practice change.
Conducted over full semester although specific time period not reported. Yes Yes, with librarian consult Yes Yes – protocol developed outlining steps to change practice; including analysis of organization, cost and SWOT analysis. Clinically integrated projects undertaken Not specified; evidence dissemination addressed in sharing day with poster presentation
Liabsuetrakul et al., 2009 [47] Fourth year medical students followed through to fifth year; examination at end of course (6th year) Introductory session on fundamentals of EBM process then didactic lectures, small group work and facilitator guided sessions. Books, handouts, practice module used as course resources. Students paired with EBM mentors from different specialties. Group facilitators had facilitation manual. Steps 1–3 of EBP process taught over 5 months in fourth year with didactic lectures (30 mins to 1 h) followed by relevant activities in small groups. Fifth year course commenced with revision lecture then lectures on steps 4 & 5; (total time for all 5 steps =15 months) Yes Yes Yes Theoretically and through observation of clinical staff practice to determine if practice was based on evidence Yes
Liabsuetrakul et al., 2013 [48] Fourth year medical students followed through to fifth year Fourth years given clinical scenario: required to develop clinical questions, search for and appraise evidence for problem (e.g. diagnostic). Small group discussions - 5th year students: develop clinical questions from own clinical practice. Observation of clinicians undertaken to compare new knowledge with current practice. Facilitators had manual for guidance. 3 day short course at end of fourth year. After lectures, facilitated small group work undertaken. Intervention for fifth year as per previous paper. Total time for program = 10 months Yes Yes Yes Theoretically and through observation of clinical staff practice Yes
Long et al., 2016 [49] Arm 1 – Nursing (RN-BSN & MSN); Arm 2 – Nutrition (undergrad); Arm 3 – Pharmacy doctoral students; Academic years not specified Evidence based internet research tool for teaching students across disciplines, about EBP (particularly critical appraisal skills). A 30-min training video was viewed by participants on how to use the tool. Case-study based questions included for students to apply question formulation and critical appraisal skills. Tool designed to be adjunct resource to texts and classroom education. Unclear Yes Yes, with research librarian collaboration Yes Not specified Not specified