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Table 3 Responses to selected knowledge questions including comparison by program (N = 222)

From: Immunization attitudes, opinions, and knowledge of healthcare professional students at two Midwestern universities in the United States

  All Programs (%)
N = 222
n (%)
BSN (%)
n = 83
n (%)
DNP (%)
n = 14
n (%)
Medicine (%)
n = 74
n (%)
Pharmacy (%)
n = 51
n (%)
Association with program (p-value)a
Hierarchy of evidence question, do the researchers’ studies suggest:b c
 Correlation between MMR and autism 2 (0.9) 1 (1.2) 1 (7.1) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 † No link between MMR and autism 173 (78.6) 53 (64.6) 11 (78.6) 65 (89.0) 44 (86.3) 0.001*
 Can’t draw a conclusion 45 (20.5) 28 (34.2) 2 (14.3) 8 (11.0) 7 (13.7)  
Patients presenting with mild illnesses, such as cold or bronchitis, should not receive their routine vaccinations.
 True 50 (22.5) 36 (43.4) 3 (21.4) 6 (8.1) 5 (9.8)  
 † False 134 (60.4) 27 (32.5) 11 (78.6) 61 (82.4) 35 (68.6) < 0.0001*
 Unsure 38 (17.1) 20 (24.1) 0 (0) 7 (9.5) 11 (21.6)  
Current scientific evidence supports associations between vaccines and chronic conditions such as autism and multiple sclerosis.d
 True 1 (0.4) 1 (1.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
False 209 (99.5) 72 (98.6) 14 (100.0) 72 (100.0) 51 (100.0) 1.000
 Unsure 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Vaccines interact with the immune system and often produce an immune response similar to that produced by the natural infection, but they do not subject the recipient to the disease and its potential complications.
True 192 (86.5) 67 (80.7) 13 (92.8) 67 (90.5) 45 (88.2)  
 False 22 (1.0) 9 (10.8) 0 (0) 7 (9.5) 6 (11.8) 0.046*
 Unsure 8 (3.6) 7 (8.5) 1 (7.1) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
The difference in immunity from breastfeeding and immunity from vaccination is that vaccines provide short-term immunologic memory, whereas breastfeeding provides long-term immunologic memory.
 True 16 (7.2) 8 (9.6) 4 (28.6) 2 (2.7) 2 (3.9)  
False 177 (79.7) 55 (66.3) 8 (57.1) 69 (93.2) 45 (88.2) < 0.0001*
 Unsure 29 (13.1) 20 (24.1) 2 (14.3) 3 (4.1) 4 (7.8)  
  1. Correct responses are indicated by an †
  2. aFisher exact test was used for analysis with an alpha = 0.05
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. bFor full detail on this question, please refer to Additional file 1
  5. cBSN n = 82, Medicine n = 73
  6. dBSN n = 73, Medicine n = 72