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Table 2 Exploratory factor analysis (n = 525)

From: The development and validation of the Ethical Sensitivity Questionnaire for Nursing Students

1 2 3
Factor 1: Respect for individuals (Cronbach’s α = 0.81)
1 Railing is placed around a bed to prevent the patient from falling out. 0.68 –0.1 –0.04
2 Although a postoperative patient has refused postural changes due to pain, postural changes are performed to prevent postoperative complications. 0.63 0.10 –0.02
3 Although a terminally ill patient has refused postural changes due to respiratory discomfort caused by moving, postural changes are performed every two hours due to the high risk of pressure ulcers. 0.60 0.10 –0.01
4 An elderly patient who had said he/she wanted to go home was placed in a facility because he/she had no relatives who could care for them at home. 0.59 –0.04 0.00
5 A sensor mat is placed at the bedside of a patient who had fallen once in the ward. 0.56 0.19 –0.05
6 You allowed a patient with dementia to stay at the nurses’ station while sitting in a wheelchair with the safety-belt fastened. 0.55 –0.06 0.06
7 A patient under your care who was of the opposite sex had refused to let you watch over him/her when he/she showered; however, you did so after persuading him/her to allow you to. 0.45 –0.09 0.12
8 To administer medication to a patient with dementia who refuses medication, it is mixed with a drink without the patient’s knowledge. 0.41 0.01 0.10
Factor 2: Distributive justice (Cronbach’s α = 0.79)
9 A terminally ill patient wished to use the bathroom for elimination; therefore, two nurses took the patient to the bathroom and aided. –0.13 0.96 –0.01
10 A bedridden patient who had always received a bed bath pleaded to take a regular bath; therefore, three nurses assisted the patient in taking a regular bath. –0.03 0.76 0.02
11 To accommodate the eating speed of patients with dysphagia, you provide eating assistance that involves uninterrupted supervision for at least one hour. –0.10 0.65 0.11
Factor 3: Maintaining patients’ confidentiality (Cronbach’s α = 0.77)
12 Reporting the condition of a patient under your care to the nurse in charge in a multi-bed hospital room. –0.02 –0.04 0.83
13 Reporting the details of the patient care to a clinical leader in the corridor. 0.05 0.04 0.75
  Factor contribution 3.51 2.78 1.59
  Correlations among factors    
  1 1 0.57 0.28
  2   1 0.16
  3    1
  1. Factor loading > 0.4 are a bold face