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Table 1 Weighting of annual mean I-ITE scores based on other International exam centers and Annual Mean Weighted Rwandan I-ITE scores

From: Measuring change in knowledge acquisition of Rwandan residents: using the American Board of Pediatrics International In-Training Examination (I-ITE) as an independent tool to monitor individual and departmental improvements during the Human Resources for Health program: an observational study

  2012–13 2013–14 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 p-value
  International Countries Italy Bahamas Italy Bahamas Bahamas Not applicable
Kuwait Italy Kuwait Italy Italy
Lebanon Kuwait Lebanon Kuwait Kuwait
Oman Lebanon Oman Lebanon Lebanon
Qatar Oman Qatar Qatar Qatar
Singapore Qatar Singapore Singapore Saudi Arabia
UAE Singapore UAE UAE  
  UAE    
All residents US scores 66.0 (±10) (n = 9138) 62.0 (±10) (n = 9300) 66.0 (±10) (n = 9138) 60.2 (±8) (n = 10,965) 65.0 (±8) (n = 11,014) p < 0.001b
Non-Rwandan International scores 60.8 (±11) (n = 1024) 59.8 (±10) (n = 1128) 64.8 (±11) (n = 823) 56.9 (±10) (n = 502) 62.1 (±11) (n = 704) p < 0.001b
Annual weighting factor 0.998 0.983 1.064 0.935 1.020
Rwandan non-weighted (raw) scorses 34.3 (±7.5) (n = 27) 38.8 (±8.6) (n = 41) 47.1 (±9.0) (n = 50) 43.5 (±7.0) (n = 49) 49.5 (±6.2) (n = 46) p < 0.001a
Rwandan weighted scores 34.3 (±7.5) (n = 27) 39.5 (±8.7) (n = 41) 44.3 (±8.4) (n = 50) 46.5 (±7.4) (n = 49) 48.6 (±6.1) (n = 46) p < 0.001a
Rwandan mean z-score −2.57 (CI: − 2.85 to − 2.28) (n = 27) −2.18 (CI: − 2.46 to − 1.89) (n = 41) −1.78 (CI: − 2.04 to − 1.52) (n = 50) −1.38 (CI: − 1.59 to − 1.17) (n = 49) −1.30 (CI: − 1.50 to − 1.11) (n = 46) p < 0.001a
PG1 residents US PG1 scores 59 (±8) (n = 2993) 54 (±8) (n = 3062) 59 (±8) (n = 2993) 55 (±7) (n = 3545) 61 (±8) (n = 3595) p < 0.001b
Non-Rwandan International PG1 scores 57 (±10) (n = 286) 55 (±10) (n = 299) 59 (±10) (n = 214) 52 (±10) (n = 127) 55 (±10) (n = 167) p < 0.001b
Rwandan weighted PG1 scores 34.8 (±8.4) (n = 16) 35.1 (±7.2) (n = 14) 40.6 (±4.9) (n = 15) 43.7 (±7.9) (n = 12) 44.3 (±6.7) (n = 7) p = 0.002a
Rwandan PG1 mean z-scores −2.15 (CI: −2.59 to −1.73) (n = 16) − 2.00 (CI: − 2.39 to − 1.60) (n = 14) −1.60 (CI: − 1.90 to − 1.30) (n = 15) −1.16 (CI: − 1.64 to −0.67) (n = 12) −0.98 (CI: − 1.60 to − 0.36) (n = 7) p < 0.001a
  1. Abbreviations: CI 95% Confidence interval
  2. aANOVA of total mean scores for PG level was undertaken
  3. bPost-hoc ANOVA ± Standard Deviation