Skip to main content


Table 1 The (semi-)open-ended and closed-ended questionnaire of Critical Thinking Disposition for Chinese medical college students (CTDI-CM)

From: Development and validation of the critical thinking disposition inventory for Chinese medical college students (CTDI-M)

CT dispositions CT dispositions
质疑 Question 灵活性 Are flexible
不盲从 Do not blindly obey 无偏见地识别问题 Identify problems without prejudice
审慎思考 Think carefully 范畴 (逻辑)归类 Category (logical) classification
自我意识 Are self-conscious 解读、澄清含义 Interpret and clarify meaning
寻求问题 Seek to solve problems 锲而不舍的探求 Pursue with perseverance
避免情绪推理 Avoid emotional reasoning 知识的整合 Integrate knowledge
分析资料 Analyse data 对一件事情给出更多可选择的意义 Attach multiple possible meanings to one thing
评估信息 Evaluate information 辨识问题 Identify problems
辨析差异 Discriminate differences 在辩论中发现漏洞 Find loopholes in the debate
不轻易、简单地依靠感知觉 Do not easily and simply rely on perception 擅长知识迁移 Are good at knowledge transfer
擅长推理 Are good at reasoning 好问、多问、深问的思维品质 Tend to ask many deep questions
有效解释 Give effective interpretations 合理判断 Make reasonable judgments
(2)不使自己原有的认识阻碍判断 Avoid allowing existing cognition to hinder judgments 逻辑思考 Think logically
在收集大量信息基础上做出正确判断 Make correct judgments based on collecting a large amount of information 抵制毫无根据的想法 Resist unfounded ideas
意识到自己的偏见 Realize own prejudices 运用知识来解决问题 Use knowledge to solve problems
无偏见地作出判断 Make judgments without prejudice 形成有充分根据的判断 Form well-founded judgments
创造性 Are creative (3)寻求证据 Seek evidence
有意识进行评判的心理状态 Have a mental state of conscious judgment (6)寻找真相 Find the truth
愿意重新建构自己的观点 Are willing to rebuild own views 谋划策略 Plan strategy
预测 Are inclined to predict (9)能够抓住事情深层次问题 Engage in in-depth thinking
有目的的自我调整 Purposefully self-adjust 确定某物的真实价值 Determine the true value of something
理性地综合考虑各种情况 Rationally consider various situations (5)寻求多样性答案 Seek solutions from many aspects
做出合理决定 Make a reasonable decision 认知监控 Employ cognitive monitoring
(1)公正客观对待事物 Have a fair and objective attitude 思维开放 Have an open mind
重视理由和证据在解决问题中的作用 Emphasize the role of reason and evidence in solving problems 从不同角度、不同方向思考 Think from different aspects and directions
(4)接纳不同观点 Accept different views 自我修正 Are capable of self-correction
对别人的意见敏感 Sensitive to other people’s opinions 反思 Engage in reflective thinking
(7)明智和谨慎地做决定 Make decisions wisely and prudently 自我调节 Are capable of self-regulation
(10)能动地、全面地分析事物的各个方面 Actively comprehensively analyse problems 合适的推论 Make appropriate inferences
(13)主动思考 Are active thinkers 阐明解决问题的多种选择 Clarify multiple options for solving problems
(16)不迷信权威 Do not have blind faith in authority 清晰、正确、精确陈述 Make clear, correct, accurate statements
独立意识 Are capable of independent consciousness (8)不陷于惯性思维定式 Avoid the negative effects of mental set
敏锐的洞察力 Are capable of keen insight 从多种角度考察合理性 Assess rationality from multiple directions
有效地理解知识 Comprehend knowledge effectively 避免过失、错误或失真 Avoid mistakes, errors or distortions
谨慎地从证据中得出结论 Carefully draw conclusions from evidence 现在思考与先前早已思考的相一致 Employ self-consistent thinking
认知成熟 Cognitive maturity 陈述与当下的内容相关联 Make pertinent statements
有效地运用知识和经验 Effectively use knowledge and experience (12)逻辑思维 Are capable of logical thinking
注意对研究证据的选择性解释 Identify selective interpretations of research evidence 深入追溯问题, 全盘把握各个方面 Investigate issues thoroughly and fully
智力解决问题 Are capable of intellectual problem solving (16)在表面理由背后挖掘真相 Distinguish truth from falsehood
智力确定行动方针 Intellectually determine a course of action (17)多方面审视问题 View the problem in many ways
明智决断 Make rational decisions 避免自我中心倾向思维 Avoid self-centred thinking
寻求信息 Search information (18)去伪存真 Winnow truth from falsehood
处理信息的技巧 Are skilled in information processing 有组织, 有目标地去努力处理问题 Address problems with organization and purpose
正确取舍 Make the correct choice (11)打破思维习惯 Break habitual thinking patterns
持慎思的怀疑态度去从事活动 Are cautious and sceptical about engaging in activities (15)不受偶然的暗示而犹豫动摇 Do not allow unrealistic suggestions to alter thinking
持之以恒的、细心的、积极的思考 Persevere, with careful and positive thinking 真伪对错的剖析和评断 Analyse and judge truth/falsehood
合理思考 Are capable of reasonable thinking 思维中遵循规律和标准 Follow the rules and standards in thinking
思维活跃 Have an active mind 对自己的理性分析能力有把握 Have confidence in their ability to analyse rationally
辨析问题 Discriminate and analyse the problem 其他___________ Please list other dispositions not included in the questionnaire__________.
  1. Note: The items in italics represent the semi-open-ended questionnaire of CTDI-CM (61 items). The items in bold represent the final version of CTDI-CM (18 items)