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Table 1 Task, gap and action feedback scoring table adapted from Gauthier et al. (2015)

From: Using deliberate practice framework to assess the quality of feedback in undergraduate clinical skills training

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Task – What was done well? (A description of the event around which feedback was given) Task not Described Vague. Lacking either content or value. (No specific behaviour was identified with regards to the learning goal for the task e.g. ‘You did great’) Content or value described generally (A general description of the behaviour was identified with regards to the learning goal for the task e.g. ‘General examination done, Inspection of the chest done, auscultation done’) Specific. Content or value specifically described. (A good description of the steps to the particular task/skill provided e.g. Positioned the patient correctly to examine the chest, when examining for aortic regurgitation had the patient lean forward and exhale)
Gap – What was not done well? (The recognition of a difference between their performance and that of a comparative standard) No gap Described Gap alluded to. (No suggestions geared toward identified behaviour. e.g. ‘Your technique was awful’) Gap generally described. (Concise issue raised but limited suggestions provided to learner e.g. You looked very uncomfortable examining that chest’) Specific gap identified. (Concise issues identified and learner provided with information to close a gap in knowledge e.g. ‘Your exam of the chest was appropriate but percussion technique was inadequate. You may be more comfortable if you position your fingers on the chest this way’)
Action – What can be improved? (Using the feedback to create a future learning goal or plan) No learning goal or plan. Learning goal or plan alluded to. (Feedback terminated with no plans for follow-up or re-evaluation e.g. ‘Great job’) General goal or plan described. (Broad action plan is suggested but not specific to behaviour or encounter e.g. ‘Read more around your cases’) Specific goal or plan described. (Clear plan to modify or reinforce behaviour e.g. ‘Read this article on chest examination, practice the percussion technique and I will watch you examine the next patient with pneumonia’)