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Table 2 Mindfulness inventory comparing pre/post score means with a paired t-test analysis

From: Compassion cultivation training promotes medical student wellness and enhanced clinical care

Mindfulness Skill (# Questions) Description (adapted from Baer et al. 2004 [52]) CCT Cohort(s)1 Pre-test Mean Post-test Mean Pre-test Standard Deviation Post-test Standard Deviation | t | p 2
Observing (12) Noticing or attending to a variety of stimuli, including internal phenomena (bodily sensations, cognitions, and emotions) and external phenomena (sounds and smells) 2015–16 42.6 49.0 8.5 8.7 3.62 0.005
2017 43.5 42.8 10.5 10.6 0.39 0.702
Describing (8) Labeling and noting observed phenomena by applying words such as “sadness” or “anger” in a nonjudgmental way 2015–16 29.0 31.1 5.3 5.4 2.10 0.062
2017 26.3 26.4 5.9 6.3 0.15 0.882
Acting with Awareness (10) Engaging fully in one’s current activity with undivided attention; focusing on one thing at a time 2015–16 28.2 31.6 6.5 3.5 2.00 0.073
2017 27.1 27.8 6.1 5.6 0.69 0.502
Accepting without Judgment (9) Refraining from evaluative labels such as good/bad, right/wrong, or worthwhile/worthless; allowing reality to be without attempts to avoid, escape, or change it 2015–16 26.4 29.4 5.8 6.1 2.87 0.017
2017 29.4 27.3 9.1 6.5 1.42 0.175
  1. 1 Categorized by full-length (combined 2015 and 2016, n = 11) and abbreviated (2017, n = 16) elective structure
  2. 2 Two-tailed with significantly higher post-test means indicated in bold