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Table 3 Studies categorised by theme and subtheme

From: Barriers and facilitators to writing quality items for medical school assessments – a scoping review

Theme Subtheme Facilitators and barriers identified Articles
Faculty Development Item Writing Training Facilitator: item writer training
Barrier: item writers’ lack of skill
Barrier: lack of participation in faculty development for item writing
▪ Abdulghani et al. (2015) [33]
▪ Abdulghani et al. (2017) [34]
▪ Abozaid et al. (2017) [35]
▪ Jozefowicz et al. (2002) [36]
▪ Iramaneerat et al. (2012) [37]
▪ Naeem et al. (2012) [2]
▪ Downing et al. (2002) [7]
▪ Case et al. (2001) [3]
Quality Assurance Procedures Committee Review and Assessment Blueprinting Facilitator: peer review
Facilitator: assessment blueprinting
▪ Wallach et al. (2006) [38]
▪ Malau-Aduli et al. (2012) [39]
▪ Abozaid et al. (2017) [35]
▪ Jozefowicz et al. (2002) [36]
▪ Pinjani et al. (2015) [4]
Item Writing Guidelines Facilitator: utilisation of item writing guidelines
Facilitator: item modelling
Barrier: lack of utilisation of item writing guidelines
▪ Holsgrove et al. (1998) [40]
▪ Downing (2002) [7]
▪ Abdulghani et al. (2015) [33]
▪ Shea et al. (1992) [41]
▪ Jozefowicz et al. (2002) [36]
▪ Wallach et al. (2006) [38]
Institutional Barriers Motivation Facilitator: institutional need for new items ▪ Pinjani et al. (2015) [4]
▪ Case et al. (2001) [3]
Time constraints and Scheduling Barrier: poor organisational assessment structure ▪ Wallach et al. (2006) [38]
▪ Jozefowicz et al. (2002) [36]
Cost and Logistics Barrier: logistical challenges of organising meetings for item writing
Facilitator: cost effectiveness
▪ Case et al. (2001) [3]
Individual Barriers Motivation Barrier: lack of motivation ▪ Naeem et al. (2012) [2]
Time constraints and allocation Barrier: lack of time allocation for item writing ▪ Shea et al. (1992) [41]
▪ Wallach et al. (2006) [38]
▪ Case et al. (2001) [3]
▪ Jozefowicz et al. (2002) [36]