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Table 2 Knowledge about the health hazards of WTS Smoking: pre and post intervention

From: Knowledge of health professional students on waterpipe tobacco smoking: curricula implications

  Pre Intervention Post Intervention P-value
No. % No. %  
WTS is safe alternative to cigarette smoking (F) 233 93.6 122 92.8 0.918
The charcoal to heat tobacco raises health risks by producing high levels of CO (T) 226 90.8 114 87 0.259
After passing through water, smoke from WTS has lower levels of toxic agents (F) 188 75.8 114 87.0 0.01
WTS tobacco smoke contains toxic agents that cause lung cancer (T) 237 96.0 119 91.5 0.076
Tobacco juices from WTS do not increase the risk of developing oral cancer (F) 199 80.2 111 84.7 0.281
WTS tobacco and smoke contain toxic agents that cause coronary heart disease (T) 230 93.5 118 90.8 0.338
Infections may be spread by sharing WTS (T) 207 83.1 120 92.3 0.014
Pregnant women who smoked WTS do not have increased risk of having low birth weight babies (F) 216 86.7 114 87.0 0.94
Babies born to WTS smokers are at an increased risk of respiratory disease (T) 220 88.4 118 90.8 0.472
WTS smokers inhale lower amount of smoke than cigarette smokers (F) 211 85.1 114 87.0 0.607
WTS is less addictive than cigarette smoking (F) 132 53.2 94 72.3 < 0.001
The smoke of WTS is as toxic as that of cigarettes (T) 160 65.0 94 72.3 0.152
An hour-long WTS session has 200 puffs, and a cigarette has 20 puffs (T) 186 75.6 111 86.0 0.018
WTS has many of the same health risks of cigarettes (T) 219 88.3 113 86.3 0.565
Smoke inhaled during a typical WTS session is over 100 times than smoking a cigarette (T) 207 84.5 111 85.4 0.818
In comparison with cigarette smokers, WTS smokers are not at risk of decreased fertility (F) 190 76.9 112 86.2 0.033
In comparison with cigarette smokers, WTS smokers are not at risk of decreased lung function (F) 217 87.9 120 91.6 0.265
Smoke from maasel (herbalWTS) contains carbon monoxide (T) 201 81.4 117 90.0 0.028
Secondhand smoke from WTS is not a health risk for nonsmokers (F) 199 80.6 107 81.7 0.793
WTS among youth is decreasing worldwide (F) 187 75.4 104 79.4 0.382
  1. T True, F False