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Table 3 Results of the Mann-Whitney U test between the PE group and NE group

From: Dental trainees reflect more critically on negative experiences: portfolio analysis using a pragmatic approach and a rubric in Japan

  Sandars method
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Overall
PE group (n) 19 32 29 18 23 20 11 152
NE group (n) 5 16 19 6 12 6 8 72
PE (median) 2 2 2 2 1 1.5 1 2
NE (median) 3 3 3 3 2 2.5 2 2.5
U-value 19 163.5 180 22 52 29.5 14 3063.5
P-value 0.0439 0.0354 0.0357 0.033 0.0008 0.0478 0.0037 p < 0.0001
  O’Sullivan method
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Overall
PE group(n) 19 32 29 18 23 20 11 152
NE group (n) 5 16 19 6 12 6 8 72
PE (median) 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
NE (median) 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3
U-value 14 117 135 15 70 27 19.5 2660
P-value 0.012 0.002 0.001 0.007 0.012 0.0307 0.013 p < 0.001
  1. PE: positive event; NE: negative event; n: number of people, median: median depth of reflection per person. Overall includes data from all 7 years