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Table 1 Scores of Reflection Measured by the Sandars method

From: Dental trainees reflect more critically on negative experiences: portfolio analysis using a pragmatic approach and a rubric in Japan

Score Scoring Guidelines
0 - (Grade F) Describing an event – poor description of an event.
1 - (Grade E) Describing an event – repeating the details of an event without offering any interpretation.
2 - (Grade D) Describing an event – recognising that something is important but not explaining why.
3 - (Grade C) Describing an event – recognising how it affects your feelings, attitudes and beliefs and/or questioning what has been learnt and comparing it to previous experience.
4 - (Grade B) Involves judgement – what went well, or less well and why.
5 - (Grade A) Experiencing an event(s) has changed, or confirmed, how you experience an event(s). You may wish to change how you respond to similar event(s in the future. You provide an explanation, including references to other literature, eg articles or books.