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Table 4 Percentage of maximum-possible-score (median, 95% confidence interval) for specific evidence-based medicine (EBM) topics in the EBM group after the intervention and associated percent change from the baseline (n = 39a)

From: How to choose an evidence-based medicine knowledge test for medical students? Comparison of three knowledge measures

EBM topic ACE test Berlin test Fresno test
Max score Post-test (% of max score) Improvement from pre-test (% of max score) Max score Post-test (% of max score) Improvement from pre-test (% of max score) Max score Post-test (% of max score) Improvement from pre-test (% of max score)
Asking questions 2 100 (100–100) 50 (0–50)     6 100 for all students – no variability 33 (33–50)
Information sources        6 33 (33–67) 33 (0–33)
Study design     3 67 (67–67) 0 (0–33) 20 55 (35–80) 30 (20–60)
Searching for evidence 2 100 (100–100) 0 (0–50)     8 75 (38–75) 38 (38–63)
Internal validity 7 71 (71–71) 14 (14–29) 3 71 (61–81) 0 (0–33) 24 21 (21–21) 21 (0–21)
Clinical importance     4 50 (50–50) 0 (0–25) 28 46 (43–60) 43 (32–46)
Application 4 50 (50–75) 0 (0–25) 1 100 (0–100) 0 (0–0) 12 42 (42–75) 42 (42–42)
Diagnostic accuracy     4 50 (25–50) 25 (25–25) 20 0 (0–20) 0 (0–20)
All topics 15 73 (67–80) 13 (13–20) 15 60 (47–67) 13 (7–20) 124 45 (40–50) 31 (25–42)
  1. an = 35 for the Fresno test (see Fig. 1)