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Table 1 Evidence-based medicine (EBM) topics addressed by questions in three EBM testsa

From: How to choose an evidence-based medicine knowledge test for medical students? Comparison of three knowledge measures

Topics No. of test questions covering a topic
ACE test Berlin test Fresno test
Asking questionsb 1, 2   1a, 1b
Information sourcesb    2
Study designb   6, 7, 14 4, 11, 12
Searching for evidenceb 3, 4   3
Internal validityb 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 8, 10, 15 6
Magnitude of effect/ clinical importance   4, 5, 9, 11 7, 9a, 9b, 9c, 10
Application 12, 13, 14, 15 13 5
Diagnostic accuracy   1, 2, 3, 12 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 8e
  1. aEach question is numbered according to its position in the original test. The ACE (Assessing Competency in Evidence-based Medicine) test has 15 dichotomous (Y/N) questions; each correct answer is awarded with one point [14]. The Berlin test has 15 multiple choice questions with five options and a single correct answer; each correct answer is awarded one point) [11]. The Fresno test has 19 open-ended questions, where each question is awarded a different number of points. In order to calculate discrimination and difficulty index for this test, answer for each participant is divided by the maximum number of points for that question [10]. The scenarios from the original instrument were translated into Croatian for this study
  2. bEBM topics covered in the third-year EBM course at USSM