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Table 6 Multiple logistic regression analysis for predictors associated with regular smoking

From: Associations of smoking behavior with lifestyle and mental health among Japanese dental students

Independent variables Category Adjusted Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p-value Score Assigned
Gender Female 1 0
Male 5.449 (1.851–16.040) 0.002 1
Age (years) 18–20 1 0
21–23 0.735 (0.161–3.362) 0.691 1
24–26 0.481 (0.088–2.626) 0.398 2
27≤ 2.123 (0.396–11.382) 0.380 3
Academic year 1st 1 0
2nd 5.002 (0.487–51.376) 0.176 1
3rd 8.478 (0.716–100.318) 0.090 2
4th 14.923 (1.094–203.531) 0.043 3
5th 21.935 (1.746–275.497) 0.017 4
6th 21.971 (1.686–286.290) 0.018 5
Skipping breakfast Less than twice a week 1 0
Twice or more a week 1.806 (0.848–3.846) 0.126 1
Eating out Less than twice a day 1 0
Twice or more a day 2.492 (1.165–5.331) 0.019 1
Health status Good 1 0
Poor 2.248 (0.855–5.911) 0.101 1
Sleeping status Good 1 0
Poor 1.232 (0.527–2.883) 0.630 1
Alcohol drinking Never 1 0
Less than three times a week 3.336 (1.241–8.970) 0.017 1
Three times or more a week 9.484 (3.335–26.970) 0.000 2
GHQ 12 score < 4 1 0
≥4 0.339 (0.136–0.845) 0.020 1
Received training in smoking cessation Yes 1 0
No 2.985 (0.640–13.915) 0.164 1
Father’s smoking Non-smoker or no father 1 0
Regular smoker 1.812 (0.757–4.340) 0.182 1
Professionalism score (per 1 point increase)   0.719 (0.608–0.850) 0.000
  1. -2 Log likelihood = 201.673
  2. Hosmer and Lemeshow test: χ2 = 3.596, p = 0.892
  3. Cox-Snell R2 = 0.235
  4. Nagelkerke R2 = 0.461
  5. CI confidence interval, GHQ General Health Questionnaire (high score indicate low mental health ststus)