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Table 3 Assessment of smoking habits according to behavioral variables and mental health

From: Associations of smoking behavior with lifestyle and mental health among Japanese dental students

  Non-current smokers (%) Regular smokers
(%)
χ 2 p-value
Residence
 With family 53 (13.2) 2 (3.8)   
 Alone 348 (86.8) 50 (96.2)   
    3.789 0.052a
Skipping breakfast
 Less than twice a week 233 (58.1) 17 (32.7)   
 Twice or more a week 168 (41.9) 35 (67.3)   
    12.02 0.001a
Eating between meals
 Less than once a week 252 (62.8) 33 (63.5)   
 Once or more a week 149 (37.2) 19 (36.5)   
    0.008 0.931a
Eating out
 Less than twice a day 265 (66.1) 19 (36.5)   
 Twice or more a day 136 (33.9) 33 (63.5)   
    17.181 0.000a
Health status
 Good 351 (87.5) 39 (75.0)   
 Poor 50 (12.5) 13 (25.0)   
    6.037 0.014a
Physical activity,
 30 min or more a day 216 (53.9) 30 (57.7)   
 Less than 30 min a day 185 (46.1) 22 (42.3)   
    0.272 0.602a
Participation in school club activities
 Yes 333 (83.0) 44 (84.6)   
 No 68 (17.0) 8 (15.4)   
    0.082 0.775a
Sleeping status
 Good 307 (76.6) 33 (63.5)   
 Poor 94 (23.4) 19 (36.5)   
    4.217 0.040a
Sleeping duration
  < 6 h 241 (60.1) 25 (48.1)   
  ≥ 6 h 160 (39.9) 27 (51.9)   
    2.745 0.098a
Alcohol drinking
 Never 209 (52.1) 8 (15.4)   
 Less than three times a week 143 (35.7) 21 (40.4)   
 Three times or more a week 49 (14.2) 23 (44.2)   
    42.928 0.000a
GHQ 12 score
 mean ± SD     
 Female (n = 200) 3.67 ± 2.94 3.00 ± 4.63 0.621c
 Male (n = 253) 2.94 ± 2.72 2.11 ± 2.07 0.023c
 Total (n = 453) 3.30 ± 2.86 2.19 ± 2.35 0.003c
  < 4 240 (59.9) 40 (76.9)   
  ≥ 4 161 (40.1) 12 (23.1)   
    5.684 0.017a
Received training in smoking cessation
 Yes 389 (97.0) 47 (90.4)   
 No 12 (3.0) 5 (9.6)   
    5.59 0.035b
  1. GHQ General Health Questionnaire (high scores indicate low mental health status), SD standard deviation. aChi-square test, bFisher’s exact test, ct test