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Table 2 Assessment of smoking habits according to demographic characteristics

From: Associations of smoking behavior with lifestyle and mental health among Japanese dental students

  Non-current smokers (%) Regular smokers (%) χ 2 p-value
Participants (n = 453) 401 (88.5) 52 (11.5)   
Gender     
Female 195 (48.6) 5 (9.6)   
Male 206 (51.4) 47 (90.4)   
    28.413 0.000a
Age (years)
 mean ± SD 21.88 ± 2.44 23.54 ± 2.39 0.000b
 18–20 130 (32.4) 5 (9.6)   
 21–23 168 (41.9) 26 (50.0)   
 24–26 81 (20.2) 12 (23.1)   
  ≥ 27 22 (5.5) 9 (17.3)   
    18.324 0.000a
Academic year
 1st 75 (18.7) 1 (1.9)   
 2nd 80 (20.0) 6 (11.5)   
 3rd 62 (15.5) 7 (13.5)   
 4th 69 (17.2) 7 (13.5)   
 5th 53 (13.2) 15 (28.8)   
 6th 62 (15.5) 16 (30.8)   
    23.702 0.000a
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
 mean ± SD 20.85 ± 3.92 21.91 ± 2.55 0.070b
  < 18.5 43 (14.7) 3 (6.1)   
 18.5–24.9 216 (73.7) 41 (83.7)   
  ≥ 25.0 34 (11.6) 5 (10.2)   
    2.909 0.234a
  1. SD standard deviation. a Chi-square test, bt test