Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Clinical characteristics and perineal status among parous women during the three study phases

From: Impact of electronic and blended learning programs for manual perineal support on incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries: a prospective interventional study

Characteristics Phase-1 (N = 181) P1 Phase-2 (N = 347) P2 Phase-3 (N = 436) P3
Age (years) 27 ± 5.0 0.012 28 ± 5.0 0.900 28 ± 5.0 0.008
Gestational age (weeks) 39 ± 1.7 0.893 39 ± 2.0 0.519 39 ± 2.0 0.683
BMI4
  < 18.5    
 18.5–24.99 20 (11.0)   49 (14.1)   80 (18.3)  
 25–29.99 99 (54.7) 0.617 182 (52.4) 0.194 205 (47.0) 0.056
  ≥ 30 60 (33.1) 113 (32.6) 146 (33.5)
 Missing 2 (1.1) 3 (0.9) 5 (1.1)
Method of birth
 Spontaneous 179 (98.9) 0.101 334 (96.3) 0.037 430 (98.6) > 0.999
 Vacuum 2 (1.1) 13 (3.7) 6 (1.4)
Fetal presentations
 Cephalic 180 (99.4)   342 (98.6) 0.477 433 (99.3)  
 Breech 1 (0.6) 0.440 5 (1.4) 0.251 2 (0.5) > 0.999
 Occiput posterior > 0.999 1 (0.2)
Onset of labor
 Spontaneous 167 (92.3) 0.010 291 (83.9) 0.096 384 (88.1) 0.152
 Induced 14 (7.7) 56 (16.1) 52 (11.9)
Second stage duration (minutes)
  < 30 152 (84.0) 0.001 238 (68.6) 0.505 327 (75.0) 0.006
 30–59 20 (11.0) 72 (20.7) 80 (18.3)
  ≥ 60 9 (2.6) 11 (2.5)
 Missing 9 (5.0) 28 (8.1) 18 (4.1)
Birthweight
  < 3000 33 (18.2) 0.626 77 (22.2) 0.907 90 (20.6) 0.709
 3000–3499 87 (48.1) 151 (43.5) 188 (43.1)
 3500–3999 46 (25.4) 94 (27.1) 122 (28.0)
  ≥ 4000 15 (8.3) 25 (7.2) 36 (8.3)
Intact Perineum 117 (64.6) 0.045 254 (73.2) 0.210 337 (77.3) 0.001
Episiotomy 8 (4.4) 0.681 19 (5.5) > 0.999 23 (5.3) 0.694
First degree tear 25 (13.8) 0.450 58 (16.7) 0.317 61 (14.0) > 0.999
Second degree tear 23 (12.7) 0.004 19 (5.5) 0.760 27 (6.2) 0.009
OASIS5 15 (8.3) 0.001 7 (2.0) 0.387 5 (1.1) < 0.001
  1. • Differences were assessed between each pair of the study phases
  2. • Categorical data were presented by n/N (%), and continuous variables by mean ± SD
  3. • Differences were assessed by independent t-test for continuous variables and Pearson- Pearson-χ2 test or Fisher’s Exact test (for cells with counts< 5) for categorical variables
  4. • P1; difference between phase-1 and phase-2, P2; difference between phase-2 and phase-3, P3; difference between phase-1 and phase-3
  5. • BMI4; body mass index = maternal weight in kilograms/(height in meters)2
  6. • OASIS5; obstetric anal sphincter injuries