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Table 5 Mixed Between-Within Subjects ANOVA of Overall, Higher-order, and Lower-order Performances, Mental Effort and Instructional Efficiency over Repeated Measures

From: Pure PBL, Hybrid PBL and Lecturing: which one is more effective in developing cognitive skills of undergraduate students in pediatric nursing course?

Measures Groups SS df MS F p η2
Overall Performance Between-subject effects Groups (G) 5074.633 2 2537.316 17.216 .000 .272
Error 13,559.313 92 147.384    
Within-subject effects Times (T) 33,861.306 1 33,861.306 6253.491 .000 .986
T × G 498.945 2 249.472 46.072 .000 .500
Error 498.160 92 5.415    
Higher-order Performance Between-subject effects Groups (G) 4227.334 2 2113.667 23.838 .000 .341
Error 8157.321 92 88.667    
Within-subject effects Times (T) 17,197.76 1 17,197.76 3850.91 .000 .977
T × G 278.286 2 139.143 31.157 .000 .404
Error 410.862 92 4.466    
Lower-order Performance Between-subject effects Groups (G) 52.316 2 26.158 2.521 .086 .052
Error 954.452 92 10.374    
Within-subject effects Times (T) 2795.680 1 2795.68 1497.89 .000 .942
T × G 38.259 2 19.129 10.249 .000 .182
Error 171.710 92 1.866    
Mental Effort Between-subject effects Groups (G) 75.56 2 37.78 13.08 .000 .22
Error 265.83 92 2.89    
Within-subject effects Times (T) 12.28 1 12.28 46.53 .000 .34
T × G .78 2 .39 1.48 .232 .03
Error 24.28 92 .26    
Instructional Efficiency Between-subject effects Groups (G) 87.52 2 43.76 15.80 .000 .26
Error 254.83 92 2.77    
Within-subject effects Times (T) .007 1 .007 .08 .781 .001
T × G 1.43 2 .71 8.06 .001 .15
Error 8.15 92 .09