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Table 3 The Key outcome themes by classification type and study quality

From: The impact of rural outreach programs on medical students’ future rural intentions and working locations: a systematic review

OUTCOME THEMES STUDY CLASSIFICATION   
RCP (CLASS 1 Total) References (CLASS 1) RCP + EDU (CLASS 2 Total) References (CLASS 2) RCSP (CLASS 3 Total) References (CLASS 3) TOTAL ALL CLASSIFICATIONS (Removed duplicates)
  Study Quality   Study Quality   Study Quality  
  Weak Mod Strg   Weak Mod Strg   Weak Mod Strg  
Workforce Intentions/Outcomes
 Increased association with graduates working in a rural location (reported numbers of graduates going onto work in a rural location) 21 [82] [36] [74] 9 [94] [50] [76] 15   [39] [77] 43
[83] [46] [75]    [51]     [40] [78]  
[84] [54]     [52]     [41] [79]  
[86] [56]     [53]     [43]   
[91] [58]     [61]     [57]   
[93] [59]     [62]     [58]   
[95] [64]     [65]     [60]   
  [65]         [63]   
  [66]         [67]   
  [68]         [69]   
  [71, 73]         [70]   
          [72]   
 Increased Rural Intentions/likelihood to work rurally 13 [81, 82] [35] [75] 3   [12, 50]   13 [85] [39]   28
[86, 89] [36]     [61]    [87] [40]   
[90, 91] [37]        [88] [42]   
  [38]        [92] [44]   
  [44]        [93] [47]   
  [71]         [48]   
          [49]   
          [70]   
 Increased student interest in rural health medicine 10 [81] [35] [75] 4 [80] [12] [76] 5 [85] [42]   20
[82] [37]     [57]    [92] [45]   
[84] [70]         [49]   
[86]            
[87]            
[88]            
[89]            
 Long term retention of graduates reported 3    [56] [74] 3   [50]   1   [72] 7
   [57]     [54]      
       [62]      
 Reported low retention rates of rural employed grads and a highly mobile workforce 0     0     1   [67]   1
 Intervention did not show a positive association with graduates choosing rural employment 2 [81] [64]   0    4 [87, 88] [47]   5
          [64]   
The Impact of Rural Background
 Rural Background is an important predictor toward rural intentions or rural employment 10 [82] [38, 58] [74] 6   [51] [76] 11   [42] [77] 25
[84] [64, 66]     [52]     [43] [79]  
[91] [68, 71]     [54]     [49]   
      [55]     [58]   
      [61]     [60]   
          [64]   
          [69]   
          [70]   
          [72]   
 Rural background of a participant is a more predictive factor of rural intentions than an educational clinical placement intervention 3   [37, 38]   0     5   [43] [77] 7
  [64]         [49]   
          [64]   
          [70]   
 Intervention outcomes independent of the rural background and therefore clinical rural experience more significant 4 [91] [36, 58]   3   [12, 52] [76] 6 [85, 87] [39] [78] 13
  [73]        [88] [41]   
Other Identified Factors/Predictors of Rural Employment
 Intentions at the start of medical training is a greater predictor of rural intentions than a rural intervention 4 [81] [38, 71]   2   [53] [76] 3   [40]   9
[86]          [42]   
          [43]   
 Increased period of exposure (placement or RCS) led to an increased association with rural intentions/employment 7 [81] [35, 36]   0     9 [92] [39] [79] 15
  [38, 46]         [40]   
  [58, 66]         [42]   
          [49]   
          [58]   
          [60]   
[69]   
 Generalist intentions were a key predictor of rural intentions/rural work 3 [81] [35, 37]   0    5   [48] [79] 8
          [49]   
          [67]   
          [70]   
 Family medicine associated with rural clinical interest/employment 2   [59] [75] 8   [50, 51]   2   [58]   12
      [52, 53]     [60]   
      [54, 55]       
      [61, 62]       
 Primary care associated with rural clinical interest/employment 0     5   [50, 51]   5   [67] [75] 10
      [52, 53]     [72] [76]  
      [62]      [77]  
 Scholarship (Bonded) 1   [71]   0     2   [69] [79] 3
 Being in graduate entry program negatively associated with working rurally 1   [71]           1
 Having dependent children negatively associated with working rurally 1   [71]           1
Further Research
 Long term follow-up of the study required 9 [82] [36, 37]   3 [94] [55, 62]   11 [85, 87] [40]   22
[86] [44, 68]        [88] [42]   
[90] [71]         [43]   
[91]          [44]   
          [45]   
          [49]   
          [57]   
          [70]   
 Exploration is needed of the specific characteristics of RPs that are associated with students’ intended location of future medical practice. 3 [90] [38]   2   [54]   4   [39]   9
[91]      [55]     [41]   
          [42]   
          [43]   
  1. Note: The summary totals for Table 3 removed duplicates (i.e. where a paper comes under multiple classifications, which occurred in several comparison studies) we counted the identified outcome once in the total column
  2. The bolded numbers represent the total ref for each classification