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Table 2 Results of scores and factor analysis of the scale of attitudes toward nurse-pharmacist collaboration administered to 441 Chinese undergraduates

From: Pharmacy and nursing students’ attitudes toward nurse-pharmacist collaboration at a Chinese university

Itema Scores (Mean ± SD) Corrected item-total score correlation Rotated Factor Coefficientsb  
Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4
20 Both nurses and pharmacists should contribute to offer patient education and counselling about drugs. 3.20 ± 0.51 0.55 0.67 −0.02 0.18 0.22
11 There are many overlapping areas of responsibility between nurses and pharmacists in drug treatment of the patients. 3.17 ± 0.54 0.59 0.63 0.22 0.17 0.08
19 Interprofessional relationships between nurses and pharmacists should be included in their professional education programs. 3.12 ± 0.52 0.57 0.57 0.02 0.04 0.25
21 During their education, nursing and pharmacy students should be involved in teamwork in order to understand their respective roles. 3.22 ± 0.45 0.63 0.55 0.23 0.27 0.22
9 Nurses should clarify a prescription passing the pharmacy clarification, when they feel that it might have detrimental effects on the patient. 3.39 ± 0.53 0.46 0.53 0.30 0.25 −0.30
12 Both nurses and pharmacists should be involved in optimization of the prescriptions through recommendations. 3.19 ± 0.50 0.54 0.53 0.18 0.19 0.10
13 Pharmacists should assume responsibility for improve nurses’ clinical training in drug related problems. 3.08 ± 0.53 0.56 0.45 −0.02 0.23 0.47
10 Nurses and pharmacists should be educated to establish collaborative relationships. 3.35 ± 0.46 0.64 0.44 0.46 0.11 0.25
4 Nurses can contribute to monitor adverse drug reactions and reduce the medication errors. 3.33 ± 0.51 0.57 0.40 0.46 0.35 −0.10
22 Pharmacists as well as nurses should have responsibility for monitoring the effects of drug on the patients. 3.22 ± 0.45 0.59 0.37 0.22 0.60 −0.10
6 A physician should be dominant authority in all healthcare matters, both nurse and pharmacist are his/her assistants. 1.83 ± 0.55 0.06 0.35 0.14 −0.28 0.07
2 Pharmacists are responsible for collaborating with nurses to solve drug related problems of patients in nursing practice. 3.30 ± 0.47 0.46 0.07 0.77 −0.05 0.11
1 One of most important responsibilities of the nurse is the administration of medications to patients. During this procedure, the nurse should be in collaboration with the pharmacist who provides the drug. 3.26 ± 0.47 0.51 0.14 0.62 0.05 0.18
3 Nurses can give valuable information to pharmacists regarding patient condition and medication history, which would aid a pharmacist in optimizing therapeutic plan as per patient needs. 3.35 ± 0.50 0.45 −0.02 0.59 0.28 0.05
16 Nurses play an important role in developing a collaborative relationship with pharmacist as a nurse is the most communicating person with the patient. 3.25 ± 0.52 0.54 0.18 0.45 0.27 0.18
18 Clinical discussion between the nurses and pharmacists would ensure that the nurse was aware of the medication plan and would facilitate early administration of time-critical medications. 3.24 ± 0.48 0.66 0.32 0.44 0.28 0.30
8 Prescription orders must be checked by pharmacists before nurses are carried out. 3.29 ± 0.54 0.44 0.21 0.42 0.01 0.16
17 Pharmacists should participate actively in the collaboration with nurse as a pharmacist assumes the main responsibility for pharmacotherapy outcomes. 3.09 ± 0.50 0.50 0.08 0.38 0.12 0.49
25 Imagine yourself in a situation where you work at a hospital as a nurse / pharmacist, what do you then think about the following statement: I am willing to in-corporate the pharmacotherapy for the patient with consultation of the pharmacist/nurse. 3.11 ± 0.50 0.46 0.06 0.08 0.65 0.16
24 Nurses as well as pharmacists should be involved in making policy decisions concerning the hospital/pharmacy services upon which their work depends. 3.16 ± 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.12 0.64 0.26
23 A pharmacist should be viewed as a collaborator and colleague with a nurse. 3.24 ± 0.49 0.56 0.31 0.12 0.53 0.22
7 Nurses have special expertise in patient education and medicine administration (for example, giving an injection) to patients during drug treatment. 3.00 ± 0.52 0.50 0.10 0.08 0.48 0.07
15 Nurses should be made aware that pharmacists can help in providing the right drug treatment. 3.21 ± 0.45 0.53 0.23 0.20 0.09 0.65
5 Pharmacists are a reliable source of drug information. 2.99 ± 0.56 0.42 −0.07 0.14 0.22 0.63
14 Nurse should consult pharmacists for helping patients with adverse reaction or refractory to drug treatment. 3.25 ± 0.48 0.51 0.19 0.28 0.11 0.49
Eigenvalues 6.91 1.51 1.47 1.27
Percentage of variance 27.7 6.1 5.9 5.1
  1. Notes:
  2. aItems are listed by the order of factor coefficients within each factor. Values greater than 0.35 are shown in bold. Numbers in superscript represent the sequence of the items in the actual scale. Item 6 is reverse scored.
  3. bFactor 1 is considered as a construct involving “‘Interprofessional Team-based Practice.” Factor 2 is considered as a construct involving “Roles/Responsibilities for Collaborative Practice.” Factor 3 is considered as a construct involving “Relationship between Nurses and Pharmacists.” Factor 4 is considered as a construct involving “Nurses’ Experience of Pharmacist’s Role in Drug Treatment.”