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Table 2 Outcome domains and psychometric properties of instruments used in studies of EBP educational interventions (n = 85)

From: Evidence-based practice educational intervention studies: a systematic review of what is taught and how it is measured

  Reaction to EBP Teaching Delivery Attitude Self-efficacy Knowledge Skills Behaviors Patient Benefit
Of 85 included studies, number measuring this outcome domain 7 35 15 39 52 19 0
Studies using previously developed instruments 0/7 (0) 24/35 (69) 5/15 (33) 24/39 (62) 20/52 (38) 7/19 (37) 0/0 (0)
Participant self-reported measure 7/7 (100) 35/35 (100) 15/15 (100) 0/39 (0) 0/52 (0) 18/19 (95) 0/0 (0)
Published/reported psychometric properties
 Inter-rater reliabilitya 0/7 (0) 0/35 (0) 0/15 (0) 8/39 (21) 15/52 (38) 2/19 (11) 0/0 (0)
 Content validitya 0/7 (0) 12/35 (34) 2/15 (13) 19/39 (49) 15/52 (38) 2/19 (11) 0/0 (0)
 Internal validitya 0/7 (0) 20/35 (57) 5/15 (33) 26/39 (67) 17/52 (44) 8/19 (42) 0/0 (0)
 Responsive validitya 0/7 (0) 8/35 (23) 1/15 (7) 11/39 (28) 10/52 (26) 1/19 (5) 0/0 (0)
 Discriminative validitya 0/7 (0) 9/35 (26) 4/15 (27) 15/39 (38) 16/52 (41) 0/19 (0) 0/0 (0)
 Criterion validitya 0/7 (0) 4/35 (11) 1/15 (7) 2/39 (5) 1/52 (3) 2/19 (11) 0/0 (0)
 Instrument ≥3 types of established validitya 0/7 (0) 8/35 (23) 0/15 (0) 14/39 (36) 14/52 (27) 0/19 (0) 0/0 (0)
  1. aconsidered ‘established’ and counted if the corresponding statistical test was significant. Abbreviation: EBP Evidence-based practice
  2. Definitions: inter-rater reliability, the degree to which the measurement is free from measurement error; content validity, external review of the instrument by EBP experts; internal validity, includes both internal consistency (i.e. the degree of the interrelatedness among the items) and dimensionality (i.e. factor analysis to determine if the instrument measured a unified latent construct); responsive validity, ability to detect the impact of EBP; discriminative validity, ability to discriminate between participants with different levels of EBP; criterion validity, the relationship between the instrument scores and participants’ scores on another instrument with established psychometric properties
  3. Presented as number (%) of included studies within each measured outcome domain