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Table 2 Included study characteristics

From: The impact of patient feedback on the medical performance of qualified doctors: a systematic review

Author Publication date Study Location Study Design Study population and sample methodology Intervention type Feedback delivery Facilitated feedback Barr’s Kirkpatrick level of change
Friedberg et al., [7] 2010 USA Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Volunteer sample of 72 adult primary care group leaders including medical directors, administrators, or managers in a hospital setting Patient experience Survey: Massachusetts Health Quality Partners “Detailed report” No 4a
Brinkman et al [50]., 2007 USA RCT Volunteer sample of 36 first year paediatric residents in a hospital setting MSF Report including narrative comments and comparison data Yes 3b
Rodriguez et al. [51], 2009 USA Observational Volunteer sample of 145,522 randomly selected patients with encounters of 1,444 primary care physicians Patient survey Report Not specified 3b
Fustino et al. [52], 2015 USA Observational Opportunity sample of four full-time physicians working in an outpatient setting Patient feedback intervention following Press-Ganey patient satisfaction survey Weekly email reports Yes 3b
Violato et al., [53] 2008 Canada Longitudinal Convenience sample of 250 (169 men, 81 women) randomly selected GPs, or family doctors. MSF:PAR Report Yes 3b
Ferguson et al. [13], 2014 UK Systematic review N/A MSF Report including aggregate scores and comparison data Mixed 3a-3b
Reinders et al. [54], 2011 Netherlands Systematic review N/A Patient feedback Report Not specified 1-3b
Overeem et al. [55], 2012 Netherlands Observational Volunteer sample of 236 (144 men, 92 women) medical specialists 360-degree feedback Report Yes: mentor 3a
Overeem et al. [10], 2010 Netherlands Observational Volunteer sample of 109 consultants working in a hospital setting MSF: PAR, ABIM, AAI, completion of a descriptive and reflective portfolio, assessment interview and personal development plan. Report Yes: “trained facilitator” 3a
Nielsen et al. [56], 2013 Denmark Observational Volunteer sample of 32,809 inpatients survey responses. Volunteer sample of department heads, and purposeful sampling of 24 representatives (eight doctors, eleven nurses, and five managers) Patient surveys Report Not specified 3a
Lewkonia et al. [8], 2013 Canada Observational Purposeful volunteer sample of 51 family physicians and general practitioners MSF: PAR and facilitated practice visit Report Yes 3a
Overeem et al. [57], 2009 Netherlands Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Purposeful sampling of 23 (14 male, 9 female) consultants working in a hospital setting MSF: PAR and ABIM, portfolio construction and personal development plan including improvement goals Report with narrative comments Yes: trained facilitator 3a
Sargeant et al. [58], 2011 UK Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Volunteer sample of 13 GP trainer and trainees MSF Report Yes: trainers 3a
Sargeant et al. [59], 2009 Canada Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Volunteer sample of 28 purposefully sampled family physicians MSF: NSPAR Mailed report No but could be requested 3a
Sargeant et al. [2], 2008 Canada Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Volunteer sampling of 28 (22 men, 6 women) purposefully sampled family physicians MSF:PAR Report No but requested 3a
Sargeant et al. [60], 2007 Canada Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Volunteer sample of 28 doctors (12 high performing, 16 in the average /lower-scoring group) identified through purposeful sample MSF: PAR Mailed reports No 3a
Edwards et al. [11], 2011 UK Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Stratified volunteer sample of 30 general practitioners (21 males and 9 females) Patient-experience survey: including CPAQ and IPQ Report Not specified 3a
Miller et al. [17], 2010 UK Systematic review N/A Workplace based assessment Report Not specified 3a
Wentlandt et al. [61], 2015 Canada Mixed methods Volunteer sample of 4 department chiefs and 12 physician participants (9 men, 3 women) The Physician Quality Improvement Initiative (PQII) Report Yes: department chief 3a
Burford et al. [1], 2011 UK Qualitative: telephone interviews Volunteer sample of 35 junior doctors (13 male, 22 female [6 F1 doctors, 29 F2]), and random sample of 40 GP patients (20 male, 20 female) Patient experience survey: Doctors interpersonal skills questionnaire (DISQ) Report Yes, if sent directly to supervisor 2b