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Table 1 Demographic profiles, research inclination and previous research experience of the medical students from various medical schools

From: Inclination towards research and the pursuit of a research career among medical students: an international cohort study

   Institutionsa
Total JCU PUC BGU DUMC NTNU NUS
First year 777 167 98 41 82 108 281
Final year 332 45 20 29 37 47 154
 N (%)
 Age at first year
  Median 19 17 18 24 24 22 19
  (Min, Max) (16, 33) (16, 22) (17, 23) (19, 27) (22, 33) (19, 25) (18, 28)
 Gender  
  Female 179 (53.9) 25 (55.6) 9 (45.0) 12 (41.4) 15 (40.5) 35 (74.5) 83 (53.9)
  Male 153 (46.1) 20 (44.4) 11 (55.0) 17 (58.6) 22 (59.5) 12 (25.5) 71 (46.1)
 Highest Academic Qualification
  No previous degree 239/327 (73.1) 40/44 (90.9) 19 (95.0) 25/28 (89.3) 0 (0.0) 35/45 (77.8) 120/153 (78.4)
  Diploma 18/327 (5.5) 3/44 (6.8) 1 (5.0) 1/28 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 3/45 (6.7) 11/153 (7.2)
  Bachelors 61/327 (18.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2/28 (7.1) 32 (86.5) 7/45 (15.6) 19/153 (12.4)
  Masters 7/327 (2.1) 1/44 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (10.8) 0 (0.0) 2/153 (1.3)
  PhD & above 2/327 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 1/153 (0.7)
 Inclination towards researchb
  No change 133/323 (41.2) 17 (37.8) 7 (35.0) 11/28 (39.3) 17/35 (48.6) 25 (53.2) 56/148 (37.8)
  Decrease 90/323 (27.9) 8 (17.8) 5 (25.0) 7/28 (25.0) 6/35 (17.1) 14 (29.8) 50/148 (33.8)
  Increase 100/323 (31.0) 20 (44.4) 8 (40.0) 10/28 (35.7) 12/35 (34.3) 8 (17.0) 42/148 (28.4)
 Inclination towards a biomedical careerb
  No change 137/329 (41.6) 17/44 (38.6) 3 (15.0) 11/28 (39.3) 14/36 (38.9) 25 (53.2) 67 (43.5)
  Decrease 118/329 (35.9) 18/44 (40.9) 15 (75.0) 6/28 (21.4) 8/36 (22.2) 10 (21.3) 61 (39.6)
  Increase 74/329 (22.5) 9/44 (20.5) 2 (10.0) 11/28 (39.3) 14/36 (38.9) 12 (25.5) 26 (16.9)
 Done research during medical school
  No 41/326 (12.6) 22 (48.9) 2 (10.0) 1 (3.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 17/152 (11.2)
  Yes 285/326 (87.4) 23 (51.1) 18 (90.0) 28 (96.6) 37 (100.0) 47 (100.0) 135/152 (88.8)
 Taken a course in research during medical school outside regular curriculum
  No 255 (76.8) 41 (91.1) 18 (90.0) 17 (58.6) 20 (54.1) 41 (87.2) 118 (76.6)
  Yes 77 (23.2) 4 (8.9) 2 (10.0) 12 (41.4) 17 (45.9) 6 (12.8) 36 (23.4)
 Taken a course in research ethics during medical school outside regular curriculum
  No 295/326 (90.2) 42/44 (95.4) 20 (100.0) 23/28 (82.1) 25 (67.6) 47 (100.0) 138/151 (91.4)
  Yes 32/326 (9.8) 2/44 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 5/28 (17.9) 12 (32.4) 0 (0.0) 13/151 (8.6)
 Had articles accepted or published in peer-reviewed journals while in medical school
  No 218 (65.7) 41 (91.1) 11 (55.0) 25 (86.2) 9 (24.3) 36 (76.6) 96 (62.3)
  Yes 114 (34.3) 4 (8.9) 9 (45.0) 4 (13.8) 28 (75.7) 11 (23.4) 58 (37.7)
 Had an experience during medical school that put off respondent from research
  No 248/326 (74.9) 36 (80.0) 6 (30.0) 28 (96.6) 22 (59.5) 42/46 (91.3) 114 (74.0)
  Yes 83/326 (25.1) 9 (20.0) 14 (70.0) 1 (3.4) 15 (40.5) 4/46 (8.7) 40 (26.0)
 Had an experience during medical school that ignited interest in research
  No 230/326 (70.3) 26/43 (60.5) 9 (45.0) 22 (75.9) 18 (48.6) 35 (74.5) 120/151 (79.5)
  Yes 97/326 (29.7) 17/43 (39.5) 11 (55.0) 7 (24.1) 19 (51.4) 12 (25.5) 31/151 (20.5)
 Read biomedical journals at least once every 6 months
  No 163 (49.1) 15 (33.3) 10 (50.0) 14 (48.3) 13 (35.1) 17 (36.2) 94 (61.0)
  Yes 169 (50.9) 30 (66.7) 10 (50.0) 15 (51.7) 24 (64.9) 30 (63.8) 60 (39.0)
 Presence of role model during medical school
  No 232/326 (73.7) 31/40 (77.5) 15/15 (100.0) 21/28 (75.0) 18 (48.6) 38 (80.9) 109/148 (73.6)
  Yes 83/326 (26.3) 9/40 (22.5) 0/15 (0.0) 7/28 (25.0) 19 (51.4) 9 (19.1) 39/148 (26.4)
 Percentage of work time envisioned to spend on research
  Mean (SD) 11.6 (12.7) 9.1 (11.9) 7.7 (4.2) 10.7 (4.32) 23.0 (22.0) 11.3 (13.2) 10.2 (9.8)
  1. aJCU James Cook University, PUC, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, BGU Ben-Gurion University, DUMC Duke University Medical Centre, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NUS National University of Singapore (inclusive of Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine and from Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School)
  2. bIncrease: No to Undecided or Yes, or Undecided to Yes; Decrease: Yes to Undecided or No; or Undecided to No