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Table 6 Summary of qualitative themes from questionnaire and focus group

From: The effectiveness and feasibility of TREAT (Tailoring Research Evidence and Theory) journal clubs in allied health: a randomised controlled trial

Category SharedSubcategory TREAT JC subcategories
(from focus group + questionnaire)
Freq. of mention Standard JC subcategories
(from questionnaire only)
Freq. of mention
Outcomes Individual level Increased skills in appraisal 30 Increase/maintain knowledge across clinical areas 12
  Question how you use research 11 Aware of other professional interests or views 7
  More confidence in appraisal 3 Evidence being shared 9
  Attitudes towards research 3 Learning/applying critical appraisal 5
Service outcomes Changes or confirmed clinical practice 10 N/A  
  Potential to lead to other research 5   
  More time efficient 5   
Facilitating Mechanisms Structure/format of session Increased participation &MDT discussion 29 Roster, organisation of presenter in advance 5
  Six week structure encouraged attendance 10 Sending article early 4
  Appraisal tool and documentation 9 Clear appraisal tools 3
  Goal setting to identify relevant topics 9 Structured format 3
  Clinicians choosing topics in interest areas 6 Effort put in by presenters 3
  Less intimidating format 8 Having a portfolio for JC role 2
  Library support 4 Support of team:
  Benefit of Facilitator: 21 Clinician’s research knowledge shared 6
  Incidental education 36 Enthusiasm/support of coordinating staff 4
  Increased confidence in outcome of appraisal 5 Getting staff advice on how to appraise 3
  Specific mechanisms of facilitator:   Positive team culture 2
  Insider knowledge & expertise 18 Format for choosing article:
  Led deeper discussion 15 Linking article to clinical scenario/case 9
  Passion and energy to engage 5 Having article in area of interest 2
  Their availability 4   
  Preparedness 2   
Challenges Time & Staffing Attendance- time to come 38 Time to participate 13
  Reduced preparedness
(not reading article beforehand)
23 Not enough time to review article beforehand 5
  Knowledge and skill barriers 3 Knowledge barriers 5
    Staff changes (attendance/restructuring) 4
Barriers of format Videoconference issues 9 Technology issue 2
  Minutes actions not always followed up 8 Unstructured and not useful format 2
  Too much time analysing article 6 Not enough appraising & discussing implications 2
  Powerpoints or handouts not given 2   
Evidence/Topic Lack of change in practice/ evidence to change 9 Reduced relevance of topic of article chosen 7
  Finding relevant topic for everyone 4   
Challenges to sustainability Turnover of staff 5 N/A  
  Forgetting what was learnt 3   
  Having access to mentor 3   
Suggestions for improvement Education/Support00 Extra education 15 Academic support during club 6
  Teach someone else to be facilitator 4 EBP education 5
  Ongoing access to researcher for support 4   
Changes to format Have club at different time of day 5 Have more structured 5
  More time discussing application to practice 4 Ensure time to read article before/during session 4
  Choose topics as group at start 3 Discuss application to practice 3
  Ensure everyone reads article beforehand 3 Make more interactive 2
  1. Freq. = Frequency. N/A = shared subtheme not applicable in participant responses