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Table 3 Correlations of single TESS items and the TESS score with external criteria

From: Identifying low test-taking effort during low-stakes tests with the new Test-taking Effort Short Scale (TESS) – development and psychometrics

Internal criterion External criterion N r p r 2
Convergent validity
 TESS item 1 Short Scale of Intrinsic Motivation [31] 1333 .52 <.001 .27
 TESS item 2 Perceived Usefulness Scale [32] (German translation) 1377 .57 < .001 .32
 TESS item 3 Cost# 1380 −.34 < .001 .12
Discriminant validity
 TESS score Repetition scale of the LIST [34] 1195 .06 <.05 .00
  1. N number of participants, r product-moment correlation, p p-value, r2 effect size, # item “To what extent do you feel that sitting the BPT keeps you from your other duties?” (reverse coded)