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Table 1 Self-report measures of test-taking effort

From: Identifying low test-taking effort during low-stakes tests with the new Test-taking Effort Short Scale (TESS) – development and psychometrics

Instrument No. items Subscales What is measured Psychometrics
Effort Thermometer [12] 3 10-point Likert items No subscales Individual test effort, anchored against a personal situation in which maximum effort was applied Not reported
Online Motivation Questionnaire (OMQ) [47] 32 4-point Likert items Mood scale
Success expectancy
Perceived utility
Task attraction
Intended efforts
Task anxiety scale
Test-taking effort in the context of performance assessment (part 1: pre-test, part 2: post-test) Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that seven factors could be distinguished empirically; proven validity and acceptable reliability
Questionnaire of Current Motivation (QCM) [48] 18 7-point Likert items Situational interest
Probability of success
Current motivation during a learning situation Sufficient to excellent reliability2
Proven validity
Student Opinion Scale (SOS) 10 5-point Likert items Importance
Motivation, administered as a post-test after students have completed achievement tests [49] Proven validity and good to excellent reliability [50]