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Table 3 Summary of effect sizes for TBL and LBL

From: Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of team-based learning on medical education in China

Outcomes No. of studies No. of subjects SMD (95% CI) I 2 P Heterogeneity
Examination scores 13 1545 2.46 (1.53–3.40) 98.00% P < 0.001
Questionnaire surveys
 Learning attitude 4 505 3.23 (2.27–4.20) 92.10% P < 0.001
 Learning skill 5 607 2.70 (1.33–4.07) 97.40% P < 0.001
  1. TBL team-based learning, LBL lecture-based learning, SMD standardized mean difference, CI confidence interval;
  2. No. of studies, learning attitude (Yuan et al. [20], Chao et al. [22], Tao [26], Wan [31]); learning skill (Yuan et al. [20], Chao et al. [22], Tao [26], Xu et al. [29], Wan [31]);
  3. SMD (95% CI), random-effects model was used because P value for heterogeneity test< 0.10