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Table 2 Working environment and new-onset depressive symptoms (n = 973)

From: The relationship between long working hours and depression among first-year residents in Japan

  New-onset depressive symptoms (+) (CES-D ≥ 16) New-onset depressive symptoms (−) (CES-D < 16) P value
Age, mean ± SD, ya 26.0 ± 2.98 26.0 ± 2.91 0.751
Male sex, n (%)b 142 (64.5%) 502 (66.8%) 0.297
University hospital, n (%)b 85 (38.6%) 292 (38.8%)  
Other educational hospital 135 (61.4%) 461 (61.2%) 1.000
Number of hours for sleep per day, mean ± SD,a 5.68 ± 0.95 5.81 ± 0.87 0.010
Disposable time, mean ± SD, hours/daya 2.35 ± 1.49 2.87 ± 1.56 < 0.001
Number of work hours per weekb
  < 60 h (n = 84) 9 (10.7%) 75 (89.3%)  
 60 to < 80 h (n = 429) 80 (18.6%) 349 (81.4%)  
 80 to < 100 h (n = 383) 96 (25.1%) 287 (74.9%)  
  ≥ 100 h (n = 77) 35 (45.5%) 42 (54.5%) < 0.001
  1. CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
  2. at-test
  3. b Chi-square test