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Table 4 Results of multivariate regression models for ophthalmologistsaand physicians other than ophthalmologistsa

From: Influence of Japan’s 2004 postgraduate training on ophthalmologist location choice, supply and distribution

Parameter 1998–2002 2006–2010 P of coefficient equality test
Estimate SEb 95%CIc P value Estimate SEb 95%CIc P
For ophthalmologist
 Opt densityd − 60.34 14.16 [−88.09 −32.59] < .001 −42.94 16.55 [− 75.38 − 10.50] 0.01 0.43
 Other physician densitye 1.95 0.88 [0.22 3.68] 0.027 5.41 1.06 [3.33 7.50] <. 001 0.013
 Urban center −1.92 1.32 [−4.51 0.67] 0.15 2.87 1.51 [−0.09 5.83] 0.06 0.018
 Suburban −1.24 0.58 [−2.39 −0.10] 0.034 0.73 0.71 [−0.66 2.13] 0.3 0.033
others reference reference NA
 SES Indexf 1.04 0.41 [0.23 1.84] 0.012 0.18 0.5 [−0.79 1.15] 0.72 0.18
For physicians other than ophthalmologists
 Opt densityd − 143.69 126.77 − 392.15 104.77 0.26 233.81 159.71 −79.22 546.84 0.14 0.065
 Other physician densitye 5.27 7.89 − 10.2 20.75 0.5 51.26 10.27 31.14 71.39 <. 001 <. 001
 Urban center −21.78 11.82 −44.95 1.4 0.07 72.66 14.58 44.08 101.24 <. 001 <. 001
 Suburban −7.14 5.23 −17.4 3.12 0.17 −5.04 6.89 −18.54 8.45 0.46 0.81
others reference reference NA
 SES Indexf 7.51 3.68 0.29 14.73 0.041 10.89 4.78 1.52 20.25 0.023 0.58
  1. aThe models included the control variables: number of primary school students per number of primary schools, crime rate, discomfort index calculated by temperature and humidity, hospital beds per 1000 population, and the presence or absence of medical schools
  2. bStandard Error
  3. cConfidence Intervals
  4. dRatio of number of ophthalmologists to 1000 population
  5. eRatio of number of all physicians other than ophthalmologists to 1000 population
  6. fSES composite index was created from the percent of the population with a college-level education, percent of white-collar workers, the unemployment rate, and per capita income