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Table 1 Variables selected in the models

From: Influence of Japan’s 2004 postgraduate training on ophthalmologist location choice, supply and distribution

Variables Explanation
Measures of Needs
Ophthalmologist density Number of ophthalmologists per 1000 population
Density of physicians other than ophthalmologistse Number of physicians other than ophthalmologists per 1000 population
Density of physicians other than ophthalmologists and residents f Number of physicians other than ophthalmologists and residents per 1000 population
Number of residents were not available prior to 2004
Measures of Community Factors
Urban/rural status
1) urban centers 2) suburban areas 3) rural areas
Metropolitan area code defined by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
Per capita income  
Percent of the population with a university-level education As a proxy for educational level in the community
Unemployment rate Number of unemployed individuals per number of all individuals currently in the labor force (workforce)
Percent of white-collar workers Number of professionals, technical workers, managers, and administrators per number of workforce
Primary school students per number of primary schools As a proxy for children’s’ educational opportunities
Crime rate Number of crimes per total population as a proxy for neighborhood safety
Temperature As a proxy for climate discomfort. The discomfort index was calculated by using temperature and humidity and used in the model.
Humidity
Measures of Professional interactions
Hospital beds per 1000 population  
The presence or absence of medical schools As a proxy for continuing education