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Table 2 Quality of studies (N = 28) based on MERSQI

From: Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: a meta-analysis

Scale item (max. points) Subscale (points if present) No. (%) present
Study design (max. 3) Non-randomized 2-group (2) 24 (86)
Randomized 2-group (3) 4 (14)
Sampling: no. of institutions (max. 1.5) 1(0.5) 26 (93)
2 (1) 1 (3.5)
3 (1.5) 1 (3.5)
aSampling: response rate (max. 1.5) <  50% or not reported (0.5) 5 (17)
50%–74% (1) (1) 1 (3.5)
≥75% (1.5) 22 (79)
Type of data: outcome assessment (max. 3) Objective (3) 28 (100)
Validity evidence (max. 3) Content (1) 28 (100)
Data analysis: appropriate (max. 1) Appropriate (1) 28 (100)
Data analysis: sophistication (max. 2) Beyond descriptive analysis (2) 28 (100)
Highest outcome type (max. 3) Knowledge, skills (1.5) 28 (100)
  1. aNote: Sampling (response rate) refers to the proportion of students enrolled who completed the flipped classroom approach