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Table 2 When students should achieve professionalism and communication competencies

From: Clinical communication skills and professionalism education are required from the beginning of medical training - a point of view of family physicians

Competency Subdomain Competencies Under graduate % FM Residency % After Residency % p*
Communicate effectively according to given roles CCS 50.0 42.1 7.9 0.003
Establish a therapeutic and professional relationship CCS 35.1 54.1 10.8 0.005
Build a suitable relationship CCS 60.5 34.2 5.3 < 0.001
Involve the bio-psycho-social context CCS 48.9 44.4 6.7 < 0.001
Understand the perspective of the patient and his or her family CCS 70.6 29.4 0.0 0.016
Adapt communication according to the patient and his or her family CCS 73.8 21.4 4.8 < 0.001
Engage patients and families to share in decision-making CCS 77.8 22.2 0.0 < 0.001
Support decision-making based on the needs and interests of the patient CCS 71.8 23.1 5.1 < 0.001
Structure and organize communication/clinical interviews CCS 59.5 38.1 2.4 < 0.001
Communicate bad news appropriately CCS 17.1 70.7 12.2 < 0.001
Inform patients and family adequately CCS 52.6 42.1 5.3 < 0.001
Work effectively in multidisciplinary team, adapting to the particularities of each team and given roles IC 19.4 69.4 11.1 < 0.001
Perform consulting, helping colleagues, other professionals, and the healthcare system IC 52.4 42.9 4.8 < 0.001
Communicate effectively to promote understanding and resolve conflicts, aiming to ensure the success of teamwork IC 16.3 53.5 30.2 0.010
Perform teamwork, aiming to ensure patient safety IC 19.5 70.7 9.8 < 0.001
Communicate about ethical issues with other health professionals IC 22.2 61.1 16.7 0.002
Demonstrate basic leadership skills Leadership 41.7 47.2 11.1 0.017
Engage in the management of human and health care resources Leadership 7.0 37.2 55.8 < 0.001
Know and apply ethics, acting with honesty and respecting ethical and moral values Professionalism 90.5 9.5 0.0 < 0.001
Act with interest and dedication Professionalism 100.0 0.0 0.0 < 0.001
Prioritize patient’s/family’s/community’s interests above one’s own Professionalism 64.4 26.7 8.9 < 0.001
Recognize one’s limits and know when to request support Professionalism 68.2 31.8 0.0 0.016
Be responsible and careful in one’s actions Professionalism 69.2 30.8 0.0 0.016
Attempt to promote patient and/or family safety Professionalism 89.5 7.9 2.6 < 0.001
Act according to the highest standards of excellence and know where to seek knowledge Professionalism 41.7 36.1 22.2 0.338
Be empathic and respectful, valuing the feelings and wishes of colleagues, patients, teachers, and other professionals Professionalism 91.9 5.4 2.7 < 0.001
Consider the beliefs, needs, and views of patients/families Professionalism 81.8 15.9 2.3 < 0.001
Reflect and have good critical skills Professionalism 65.9 26.8 7.3 < 0.001
Deal with uncertainty appropriately, adapting to different situations and contexts Professionalism 32.4 54.1 13.5 0.010
Recognize and nurture their own physical and mental health Professionalism 87.1 9.7 3.2 < 0.001
  1. p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant