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Table 2 The 10 targets of the MITS

From: Assessment of motivational interviewing: a qualitative study of response process validity, content validity and feasibility of the motivational interviewing target scheme (MITS) in general practice

Target Summary (for a complete description see the manual of the MITS)
1. Activity Emphasis Target 1 describes a flexible framework of three primary activities (Considering, Discussing and Advocating) within which the other target behaviours may be practised. The practitioner uses the activity that will best serve the general strategic goal of increasing the likelihood of movement towards change.
2 Posture Target 2 describes the preferred manner in which the practitioner should conduct her/himself at all times. This posture is consistent with enhancing effectiveness, common decency and, above all, doing no harm.
3 Empathy Target 3 describes the core skills of discriminating empathic reflection. Its employment has many purposes in MI including, achieving and maintaining harmonious relations (rapprochement), steering the course of the conversation, and building the case for change.
4. Collaboration Target 4 describes the sense of purposeful collaboration, of which all parties to the conversation become aware.
5. Independence Target 5 describes a foundation aspect of the relationship, in which the practitioner works to establish, legitimise and maintain recognition of the person’s independence with regard to all matters pertaining to the focal predicament.
6. Evocation Target 6 describes the particular skills and tactics for assisting the person to articulate the arguments in favour of change and ideas about how change could be achieved. An evocative style should be maintained throughout with no evidence of the practitioner attempting to overtly persuade the person.
7. Navigation Target 7 describes the skills of ‘pushing forward’ the conversation in a promising and ultimately productive direction, taking the person along as a willing collaborator, and without causing things to fall apart - disengagement.
8. Contrasts Target 8 describes the skills of causing the person to consider apparent inconsistencies between the conversation’s focal problem and her/his goals, aspirations, beliefs or values, without evoking a sense of despondency or hopelessness.
9. Structured brief tactics Target 9 is concerned with the skills of employing, intermittently, particular conversational ‘set routines’ that assist in clarifying the goals of change, the state of readiness, factors inhibiting and facilitating change, or the route toward declared goals etc.
10. Information & Advice Target 10 is concerned with the skills of giving information and advice with effect; that is, in such a manner that the person most likely will at least consider it, it if not act upon it.