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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects

From: Internal medicine board certification and career pathways in Japan

  2010 report 2012 report
(n = 104,193) (n = 107,105)
Sex (n, %)
  Male 87,969 84.4 89,611 83.7
  Female 16,224 15.6 17,494 16.3
Years of experience (mean, standard deviation)
   24.2 14.7 24.5 14.6
Type of municipality (n, %)
  Special wards 36,303 34.8 38,823 36.2
  Cities 60,871 58.4 61,520 57.4
  Towns and villages 7,019 6.7 6,762 6.3
Type of medical institution (n, %)
  Academic hospitals 13,717 13.2 14,480 13.5
  Other hospitals 43,967 42.2 45,948 42.9
  Clinics and others 46,509 44.6 46,677 43.6
Main area of practice (n, %)
  Internal medicine 61,877 59.4 61,177 57.1
  Gastroenterological medicine 12,188 11.7 13,080 12.2
  Cardiology 10,829 10.4 11,541 10.8
  Respiratory medicine 4944 4.7 5337 5.0
  Neurology 4094 3.9 4361 4.1
  Diabetes and metabolism 3488 3.3 3966 3.7
  Nephrology 3085 3.0 3492 3.3
  Hematology 2118 2.0 2353 2.2
  Rheumatology 1058 1.0 1228 1.1
  Infectious diseases 303 0.3 367 0.3
  Allergy 209 0.2 203 0.2
Board-certified physicians (n, %)
  General internal medicine 13,896 13.3 13,607 12.7
  Gerontology 936 0.9 975 0.9
  Gastroenterological medicine 11,283 10.8 12,090 11.3
  Hepatology 3097 3.0 3583 3.3
  Cardiology 9150 8.8 9884 9.2
  Respiratory medicine 3602 3.5 4027 3.8
  Neurology 3285 3.2 3555 3.3
  Diabetes 3374 3.2 3763 3.5
  Metabolism 1293 1.2 1399 1.3
  Nephrology 2347 2.3 2622 2.4
  Hematology 1876 1.8 2055 1.9
  Rheumatology 1407 1.4 1618 1.5
  Infectious diseases 615 0.6 696 0.6
  Allergy 1196 1.1 1301 1.2
Number of board certifications (n, %)
  None 65,150 62.5 65,045 60.7
  1 24,149 23.2 26,518 24.8
  2 11,902 11.4 12,381 11.6
  ≥ 3 2992 2.8 3161 2.9