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Table 3 Predictors of Grade Point Average among the participants (n = 712)

From: Approaches to studying predict academic performance in undergraduate occupational therapy students: a cross-cultural study

Independent variables Grade Point Average
1) Demographics and education Std. β p
 Age 0.11 <0.01
 Gender −0.10 0.01
 Prior higher education 0.01 0.79
 Time spent on self-study 0.10 <0.01
Explained variance 2.6% <0.01
2) Deep approach subscales
 Seeking meaning 0.12 0.01
 Relating ideas −0.05 0.30
 Use of evidence 0.02 0.69
 Interest in ideas −0.08 0.08
R2 change 1.2% 0.08
Explained variance 3.8% <0.01
3) Strategic approach subscales
 Organized study −0.00 0.99
 Time management −0.12 0.04
 Alertness to assessment −0.06 0.17
 Achieving 0.22 <0.001
 Monitoring effectiveness 0.04 0.39
R2 change 1.8% 0.03
Explained variance 5.6% <0.001
4) Surface approach subscales
 Lack of purpose 0.14 <0.01
 Unrelated memorizing −0.02 0.70
 Syllabus-bound −0.01 0.88
 Fear of failure −0.17 <0.001
R2 change 4.0% <0.001
Explained variance 9.6% <0.001
  1. Table content is standardized β weights, indicating the strength of each variable’s relationship with GPA controlling for all variables in the model, and p-values associated with these relationships. Variable coding: female = 1, male = 2; prior higher education = 1, no prior higher education = 2. On all other variables, higher scores indicate higher levels